As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 1, 2021
File Nos. 333-171279 and 811-22507



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC  20549

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Pre-Effective Amendment No.
Post-Effective Amendment No.   32
and/or
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
Amendment No.   41
(Check appropriate box or boxes)


VOLT ETF TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

116 South Franklin Street, P. O. Box 69, Rocky Mount, NC  27804
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

252-972-9922
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

Terrence Davis, Esq.
Greenberg Traurig, LLP
3333 Piedmont RD., NE
Suite 2500
Atlanta, GA 30305
 
Tanya Boyle, Esq.
Greenberg Traurig, LLP
2200 Ross Avenue, Suite 5200
Dallas, TX 75201
Tracie Coop, Esq.
The Nottingham Company
116 S. Franklin Street
Rocky Mount, NC 27802

As soon as practicable after the Effective Date of this Registration Statement
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering

It is proposed that this filing will become effective: (check appropriate box)

[X] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
[  ] on (date)pursuant to paragraph (b)
[  ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[  ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[  ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
[  ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485
If appropriate, check the following box:

[  ] This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.








Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and
Tech ETF
(Ticker:  BTCR)


A series of the
Volt ETF Trust




PROSPECTUS
October 1, 2021




This Prospectus provides important information about the Fund that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.  For questions, or for Shareholder Services, please call 1-800-773-3863.
Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc.




These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission nor has the Securities and Exchange Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page


 
Fund Summary
 
 
2
 
 
Additional Information about the Fund’s Investment Objective,
Principal Investment Strategies, and Risks
 
 

15
 
 
Investment Objective
 
 
15
 
 
Principal Investment Strategies
 
 
15
 
 
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
 
 
18
 
 
Temporary Defensive Positions
 
 
26
 
 
Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings
 
 
26
 
 
Management of the Fund
 
 
27
 
 
Investment Advisor
 
 
27
 
 
Portfolio Manager
 
 
27
 
 
Purchase and Redemption of Shares
 
 
27
 
 
How to Buy and Sell Shares
 
 
28
 
 
Pricing Fund Shares
 
 
28
 
 
Determination of Net Asset Value
 
 
29
 
 
Creation Units
 
 
30
 
 
How to Buy Creation Units
 
 
30
 
 
Legal Restrictions on Transactions in Certain Securities
 
 
31
 
 
Redemption of Creation Units
 
 
31
 
 
Distributions
 
 
32
 
 
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Fund Shares
 
 
32
 
 
Distribution and Service Plan
 
 
33
 
 
Fund Service Providers
 
 
33
 
 
Federal Income Taxation
 
 
34
 
 
Taxes on Distributions
 
 
34
 
 
Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales
 
 
36
 
 
Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units
 
 
37
 
 
Other Important Information
 
 
37
 
 
Portfolio Holdings Information
 
 
37
 
 
Premium/Discount Information
 
 
38
 






 
Financial Highlights
 
 
38
 
   
Additional Information
Back Cover







FUND SUMMARY

Investment Objective: The Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide capital appreciation.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund: This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing or selling shares of the Fund in the secondary market may be subject to costs (including customary brokerage commissions) charged by their broker. These costs are not included in the expense example below.

Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees
0.85%
Distribution and 12b-1 Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses1
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.85%
1. Estimated for the current fiscal year.

Example: This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.
The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem (or you hold) all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

One Year
Three Years
$87
$271

Portfolio Turnover: The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.




2


Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing a majority of its net assets in U.S. and foreign companies with exposure to bitcoin and its supporting infrastructure. The Advisor applies an option overlay strategy to the Fund’s equity investments.
The Fund defines companies with exposure to bitcoin as “Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies”, which are domestic and foreign (including American Depository Receipts (“ADRs”)) companies that: (i) hold a majority of their net assets in bitcoin on their balance sheet as can be reasonably determined by the companys annual filings (e.g. filings on Form 10k or foreign equivalents) from the past 12 months; and/or (ii) derive a majority of their revenue or profits directly from mining, lending, transacting in bitcoin, or manufacturing bitcoin mining equipment as can be reasonably determined by the companys annual filings from the past 12 months. The Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies noted in (i) above will not include Canadian ETFs or private funds and will include no more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in GBTC.

While the Fund has a bitcoin industry focus, under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies and Technology Companies, options on those companies and ETFs with exposure to those companies. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest the majority of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies. The remainder of the Fund’s net assets used to satisfy the 80% test set forth above will be invested in Technology Companies, and at least 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be in Technology Companies. “Technology Companies” are companies that derive at least 50% of their revenue from software, technology hardware, and/or products or services that rely on self-developed processing chips or artificial intelligence chips.
The Fund may also invest up to 20% of the portfolio to gain broad equity market exposure, including through ETFs, to offset the risk of the focused portfolio. The Fund will not directly invest in bitcoin but will invest in companies that support bitcoin and the bitcoin blockchain industry.
Bitcoin is a digital asset that is created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. No single entity owns or operates the Bitcoin network, the infrastructure of which is collectively maintained by a decentralized user base. The Bitcoin network allows people to exchange tokens of value, called bitcoin, which are recorded on a public transaction ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoin can be used to pay for goods and services, or it can be converted to fiat currencies (traditional currencies, such as the U.S. dollar, that are government-issued and are not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver) at rates determined by digital asset exchanges that trade bitcoin or in individual end-to-end user transactions under a barter system.




3



Bitcoin is one among many uses of blockchain technology. Blockchain technology is an emerging technology that is redefining how a record of value is maintained. Blockchain technology seeks to solve transactional challenges of counterparty trust and the need for a central repository or ledger by providing a transparent and secure process to transfer and digitally record information on a shared transaction database through a secure, decentralized, peer-to-peer distributed ledger. In this regard, it is designed to facilitate the transfer of information or property between users such that the transfer is guaranteed to be secure and known to all participants and shared across a distributed network where, once verified, the legitimacy of the transfer cannot be challenged. Blockchain technology may be used to support a vast array of business applications in many different industries and markets, and the extent of its versatility has not yet been fully explored. As a result, the Fund may invest in equity securities of operating companies with investments in bitcoin and bitcoin’s blockchain technology that focus on or have exposure to a wide variety of industries and countries, including emerging markets.

The Fund will invest up to 25% of the Fund’s assets in a single analytics software company that the Advisor believes is generally bullish on bitcoin and may be positioned to benefit in a rise in bitcoin value due to their willingness to convert free cash into bitcoin.
In selecting companies that the Advisor believes are relevant to the Fund’s investment objective, the Advisor seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on bitcoin and bitcoin’s blockchain technology or that are enabling or supporting the further development of bitcoin or bitcoin investments in the markets in which they operate. The Advisor’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including internal and external research, and indicators such as the Stock-to-Flow model, which evaluates the current stock of bitcoin against the flow of new bitcoin mined that year. The Advisor uses such research to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries.
Under normal circumstances, primarily all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities and options on those equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises and ETFs. The Fund’s investments will include small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets. The Fund may invest in foreign securities (including investments in ADRs) and securities listed on local foreign exchanges.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, which means that the Fund may invest a high percentage of its assets in a fewer number of issuers.




4



Option Overlay Strategy

Up to twenty percent of the Fund’s net assets will be subject to the Fund’s option overlay. The option overlay consists of purchasing exchange-traded and over the counter (“OTC”) put options on the NASDAQ® 100 Index, S&P 500® Index, a NASDAQ® 100 Index ETF, an S&P 500 Index ETF, or individual securities and call options on individual securities. When the Fund purchases a call option, the Fund has the right, but not the obligation, to buy a stock or other asset at a specified price (strike price) within a specific time period. When the Fund purchases a put option, the Fund has the right, but not the obligation, to sell a stock or other asset at a specified price (strike price) within a specific time period.
The option overlay is a strategic, persistent exposure meant to hedge against market movements or capture movements in individual companies. If the market goes up, the Fund’s returns may outperform the market because the Advisor will sell or exercise the call options. If the market goes down, the Fund’s returns may fall less than the market because the Advisor will sell or exercise the put options. The Advisor selects options based upon its evaluation of relative value based on cost, strike price (price that the option can be bought or sold by the option holder) and maturity (the last date the option contract is valid) and will exercise or close the options based on maturity or portfolio rebalancing requirements. The Fund anticipates purchasing and selling options on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis, depending upon the Fund’s rebalancing requirements and the individual option expiration dates. However, the Fund may rebalance its option portfolio on a more frequent basis for a number of reasons such as market volatility renders the protection provided by the option strategy ineffective or an option position has appreciated to the point that it is prudent to decrease the Fund’s exposure and realize gains for the Fund’s shareholders. While the option overlay is intended to improve the Fund’s performance, there is no guarantee that it will do so.
The value of the Fund’s call options is expected to rise in proportion to the rise in value of the underlying assets, but the amount by which the Fund’s options increase or decrease in value depends on how far the market has moved from the time the options position was initiated. The value of the Fund’s call options may rise faster than the market if the Advisor successfully selects options that appreciate in value.
Principal Investment Risks
Risk is inherent in all investing. The loss of your money is a principal risk of investing in the Fund. The Fund is subject to certain risks, including the principal risks noted below, any of which may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and ability to meet its investment objective. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit or obligation of any bank, is not endorsed or guaranteed by any bank, and is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency.




5


Single Issuer Investment Risk. The Fund focuses its assets (i.e., invests up to 25% of its assets) in securities of a single issuer and, as a result, the Fund may be subject to greater volatility with respect to its portfolio securities than a Fund that is more broadly diversified. Accordingly, the Fund is subject to the risk that its performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of a single issuer.
Bitcoin Exposure Risk. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. If cryptocurrency markets continue to be subject to sharp fluctuations, the Fund’s shareholders may experience losses. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. The companies in which the Fund invests and the Fund’s indirect investment in bitcoin remain subject to volatility experienced by the cryptocurrency exchanges and other cryptocurrency trading venues. Such volatility can adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Derivatives Risk. Options are a derivative investment. The use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. These risks include (i) the risk that the counterparty to a derivative transaction may not fulfill its contractual obligations; (ii) risk of mispricing or improper valuation; and (iii) the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index.
Option Risk. As the buyer of a put or call option, the Fund risks losing the entire premium invested in the option if the Fund does not exercise the option.
Over-the-Counter Market Risk. Securities and options traded in over-the-counter markets may trade less frequently and in limited volumes and thus exhibit more volatility and liquidity risk, and the prices paid by the Fund in over-the-counter transactions may include an undisclosed dealer markup. The Fund is also exposed to default by the over-the-counter option writer who may be unwilling or unable to perform its contractual obligations to the Fund.




6


Blockchain Technology Investments Risk. An investment in companies actively engaged with blockchain technology (which underpins bitcoin and the Bitcoin network) may be subject to the following risks:
The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested. The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is less clear. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Theft, loss or destruction. Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.
Competing platforms and technologies. The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains.
Cyber security incidents. Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.
Developmental risk. Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which the Fund invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.
Intellectual property claims. A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in the Fund.




7



Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets. Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain platform is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.
Lack of regulation. Digital commodities such as cryptocurrencies and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.
Third party product defects or vulnerabilities. Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.
Reliance on the Internet. Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect the Fund. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.
Line of business risk. Some of the companies in which the Fund may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.

Equity Risk. The net asset value of the Fund will fluctuate based on changes in the value of the equity securities held by the Fund. Equity prices can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.




8


Foreign Securities and Emerging Markets Risk. Foreign securities have investment risks different from those associated with domestic securities. The value of foreign investments (including investments in ADRs) may be affected by the value of the local currency relative to the U.S. dollar, changes in exchange control regulations, application of foreign tax laws, changes in governmental economic or monetary policy, or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. There may be less government supervision of foreign markets, resulting in non-uniform accounting practices and less publicly available information about issuers of foreign securities. In addition, foreign brokerage commissions, custody fees, and other costs of investing in foreign securities are often higher than in the United States. Investments in foreign issues could be affected by other factors not present in the United States, including expropriation, armed conflict, confiscatory taxation, and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations. In addition to the risks of foreign securities in general, countries in emerging markets are more volatile and can have relatively unstable governments, social and legal systems that do not protect shareholders, economies based on only a few industries, and securities markets that trade a small number of issues which could reduce liquidity. There is also less publicly available information on emerging market companies due to differences in regulation, accounting, auditing, and financial recordkeeping requirements, and the information available may be unreliable or outdated.
Underlying Fund Risk. ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to investment advisory and other expenses, which will be indirectly paid by the Fund. As a result, the cost of investing in the Fund will be higher than the cost of investing directly in the ETFs and may be higher than other funds that invest directly in stocks and bonds. Each of the ETFs is subject to its own specific risks, but the Advisor expects the principal investments risks of such ETFs will be similar to the risks of investing in the Fund.
Small and Medium Capitalization Risk. The earnings and prospects of small and medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Small and medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.
Large Capitalization Risk. Large-capitalization companies may be less able than smaller capitalization companies to adapt to changing market conditions. Large-capitalization companies may be more mature and subject to more limited growth potential compared with smaller capitalization companies. During different market cycles, the performance of large capitalization companies has trailed the overall performance of the broader securities markets.
Portfolio Turnover Risk.  The Fund may have a high turnover of the securities held in its portfolio. Increased portfolio turnover causes the Fund to incur higher brokerage costs, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. High rates of portfolio turnover may also result in the realization of short-term capital gains and losses.  Any distributions resulting from such gains will be considered ordinary income for federal income tax purposes.




9


Active Management Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that the investment management strategy may not produce the intended results and may negatively impact Fund performance. The Advisor’s overlay strategy will not fully protect the Fund from declines in the market.
Financial Technology Risk. Companies that are developing financial technologies such as blockchain technology that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Financial technology companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A financial technology company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, financial technology companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Technology Sector Risk. The Fund may make investments in certain ETFs that are concentrated in the Information Technology sector, which means the ETFs are more likely to be more adversely affected by any negative performance of the Information Technology sector than ETFs that have more diversified holdings across a number of sectors. Market or economic factors impacting technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the ETFs’ investments.
Early Close/Trading Halt Risk. An exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments may be restricted, which may prevent the Fund from buying or selling certain securities or financial instruments. In these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and may incur substantial trading losses.
ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF. As a result, the Fund is subject to the special risks, including:

Not Individually Redeemable. The Fund’s shares (“Shares”) are not redeemable by retail investors and may be redeemed only by Authorized Participants at net asset value (“NAV”) and only in Creation Units. A retail investor generally incurs brokerage costs when selling shares.
Trading Issues. Trading in Shares on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that Shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange which may result in the Shares being delisted. An active trading market for the Shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as Authorized Participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Shares.




10


Cash Purchases. To the extent Creation Units are purchased by APs in cash instead of in-kind, the Fund will incur certain costs such as brokerage expenses and taxable gains and losses. These costs could be imposed on the Fund and impact the Fund’s NAV if not fully offset by transaction fees paid by the APs.
Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the Shares. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV.

o
In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in the Shares and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.
o
To the extent Authorized Participants exit the business or are unable to process creations or redemptions and no other Authorized Participant can step in to do so, there may be a significantly reduced trading market in the Fund's shares, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund's net asset value.
o
The market price of the Shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less the Shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for the Shares or in the closing price.
o
When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund's shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund's domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund's shares and the Fund's net asset value.
o
In stressed market conditions, the market for the Shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.





11


Authorized Participant Risk. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as an Authorized Participant on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.
Limited History Risk. The Fund is a new ETF and has a limited history of operations for investors to evaluate.
Market and Geopolitical Risk. The increasing interconnectivity between global economies and financial markets increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform due to inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, terrorism, regulatory events and governmental or quasi-governmental actions. The occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years may result in market volatility and may have long term effects on both the U.S. and global financial markets. It is not known how long such impacts will or would last, but there could be a prolonged period of global economic slowdown, which may impact your Fund investment.


New Advisor Risk. The Advisor has only recently begun serving as an investment advisor to ETFs. As a result, investors do not have a long-term track record of managing an ETF from which to judge the Advisor, and the Advisor may not achieve the intended result in managing the Fund.

Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund’s portfolio may focus on a limited number of investments and will be subject to potential for volatility than a diversified fund.
COVID-19 Risk. An outbreak of infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has now been detected globally. COVID-19 has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer demand, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of COVID-19, and other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many countries or the entire global economy, individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. In addition, the impact of infectious illnesses in emerging market countries may be greater due to generally less established healthcare systems. Public health crises caused by the COVID-19 outbreak may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries or globally. As such, issuers of debt securities with operations, productions, offices, and/or personnel in (or other exposure to) areas affected with the virus may experience significant disruptions to their business and/or holdings.  The potential impact on the credit markets may include market illiquidity, defaults and bankruptcies, among other consequences, particularly on issuers in the airline, travel and leisure and retail sectors.  The extent to which COVID-19 will affect the Fund, the Fund’s service providers’ and/or issuer’s operations and results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain COVID-19. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected. As a result, whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in or with significant exposure to countries experiencing economic, political and/or financial difficulties, the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by such events. If there is a significant decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio, this may impact the Fund’s asset coverage levels for certain kinds of derivatives and other portfolio transactions. The duration of the COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on the global economy cannot be determined with certainty.




12


Cybersecurity Risk. As part of its business, the Advisor processes, stores, and transmits large amounts of electronic information, including information relating to the transactions of the Fund. The Advisor and the Fund are therefore susceptible to cybersecurity risk. Cybersecurity failures or breaches of the Fund or its service providers have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties and/or reputational damage. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
Fund Performance
The Fund is new and does not yet have historical performance.
Management
Investment Advisor: Volt Equity LLC (the “Advisor”)
Portfolio Managers: Tad Park, Chief Executive Officer of the Advisor, has served the Fund as a portfolio manager since it commenced operations in September 2021. Mr. Park is primarily responsible for the management of the Fund.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in large blocks of 10,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed primarily cash and/or in-kind for securities. Except when aggregated in Creation Units in transactions with Authorized Participants, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.
Individual shares of the fund may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through a broker or dealer at a market price. Because ETF shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount). An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for shares of the Fund (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). You may access recent information, including information on the Fund’s NAV, Market Price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, on the Fund’s website at www.voltfunds.com.





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Tax Information
The Fund intends to make distributions that may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account (IRA). Distributions on investments made through tax deferred arrangements generally will be taxed later when withdrawn from those accounts.
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Advisor or other related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.





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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND’S INVESTMENT
OBJECTIVE, PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES, AND RISKS

Investment Objective

The Funds investment objective is to provide capital appreciation. The investment objective is not a fundamental policy and can be changed without shareholder approval by a vote of the Board. Shareholders will receive 60 days’ prior written notice before a change to an investment objective or the Fund’s 80% investment policy in Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies and Technology Companies, and options on those companies, and ETFs with exposure to those companies takes effect.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund is an actively managed ETF.  Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies and Technology Companies, options on those companies and ETFs with exposure to those companies. Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest the majority of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in Bitcoin Industry Revolution Companies. The remainder of the Fund’s net assets used to satisfy the 80% test set forth above will be invested in Technology Companies, and at least 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be in Technology Companies.
The Fund may also invest up to 20% of the portfolio to gain equity market exposure by investing directly in equities or indirectly through equity ETFs, to offset the risk of the focused portfolio.  The Advisor applies an option overlay strategy to the Fund’s equity investments.
The Fund will not directly invest in bitcoin but will invest in companies that support bitcoin and the bitcoin blockchain industry.
Bitcoin is a digital asset that is created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. No single entity owns or operates the Bitcoin network, the infrastructure of which is collectively maintained by a decentralized user base. The Bitcoin network allows people to exchange tokens of value, called bitcoin, which are recorded on a public transaction ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoin can be used to pay for goods and services, or it can be converted to fiat currencies (traditional currencies, such as the U.S. dollar, that are government-issued and are not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver) at rates determined by digital asset exchanges that trade bitcoin or in individual end-to-end user transactions under a barter system.
Bitcoin is created by “mining.” Mining involves miners using a sophisticated computer program to repeatedly solve complex mathematical problems on specialized computer hardware. The mathematical problem involves a computation involving all or some bitcoin transactions that have been proposed by the Bitcoin network’s participants. When this problem is solved, the computer creates a “block” consisting of these transactions. As each newly solved block refers back to and “connects” with the immediately prior solved block, the addition of a new block adds to the blockchain in a manner similar to a new link being added to a chain. A miner that is successful in adding a block to the blockchain is automatically awarded a fixed amount of bitcoin for its efforts plus any transaction fees paid by transferors whose transactions are recorded in the block. This reward system is the means by which new bitcoin enter circulation.




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The supply of new bitcoin is mathematically controlled so that the number of bitcoin grows at a limited rate pursuant to a pre-set schedule. The number of bitcoin awarded for solving a new block is automatically halved after every 210,000 blocks are added to the Bitcoin blockchain (approximately every four years). Currently, the fixed reward for solving a new block is 6.25 bitcoin per block and this is expected to decrease by half to become 3.125 bitcoin after the next 210,000 blocks have entered the Bitcoin network, which is expected to be May 2024. This deliberately controlled rate of bitcoin creation means that the number of bitcoin in existence will increase at a controlled rate until the number of bitcoin in existence reaches the pre-determined 21 million bitcoin. It is estimated that the 21 million bitcoin limitation will be reached in the year 2140.
Bitcoin is one among many uses of blockchain technology. Blockchain technology is an emerging technology that is redefining how a record of value is maintained. Blockchain technology seeks to solve transactional challenges of counterparty trust and the need for a central repository or ledger by providing a transparent and secure process to transfer and digitally record information on a shared transaction database through a secure, decentralized, peer-to-peer distributed ledger. In this regard, it is designed to facilitate the transfer of information or property between users such that the transfer is guaranteed to be secure and known to all participants and shared across a distributed network where, once verified, the legitimacy of the transfer cannot be challenged. Blockchain technology may be used to support a vast array of business applications in many different industries and markets, and the extent of its versatility has not yet been fully explored. As a result, the Fund may invest in equity securities of operating companies with investments in bitcoin and bitcoin’s blockchain technology that focus on or have exposure to a wide variety of industries and countries, including emerging markets.
In selecting companies that the Advisor believes are relevant to the Fund’s investment objective, the Advisor seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on bitcoin and bitcoin’s blockchain technology or that are enabling or supporting the further development of bitcoin or bitcoin investments in the markets in which they operate. The Advisor’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including internal and external research, and indicators such as the Stock-to-Flow model, which evaluates the current stock of bitcoin against the flow of new bitcoin mined that year. The Advisor uses such research to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries. The Advisor’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including internal and external research, to develop and refine its investment strategy to identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries.  Some factors that are considered before a security is bought or sold is how much bitcoin the Bitcoin Industry Revolutionary holds compared to its market cap, trends and moving averages for bitcoin, and expectations for the company's future cashflows.  If the Advisor anticipates a prolonged bear market, the Advisor may decide to sell companies that have outsized exposure to bitcoin price movement, such as bitcoin miners, in favor of companies that support the infrastructure of bitcoin, but are not disproportionately affected by the price of bitcoin.




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Under normal circumstances, primarily all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities and options on those equities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises and ETFs. The Fund’s investments will include small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets. The Fund may invest in foreign securities (including investments in ADRs) and securities listed on local foreign exchanges.
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, which means that the Fund may invest a high percentage of its assets in a fewer number of issuers. The Fund will be concentrated (i.e., will invest 25% or more of its assets under normal circumstances) in the information technology industry.

Option Overlay Strategy

The option overlay consists of purchasing exchange-traded and over the counter (“OTC”) put options on the NASDAQ® 100 Index, S&P 500® Index, a NASDAQ® 100 Index ETF, a S&P 500 Index ETF or individual securities and call options on individual securities. When the Fund purchases a call option, the Fund has the right, but not the obligation, to buy a stock or other asset at a specified price (strike price) within a specific time period. When the Fund purchases a put option, the Fund has the right, but not the obligation, to sell a stock or other asset at a specified price (strike price) within a specific time period.
Up to twenty percent of the Fund’s net assets will be subject to the Fund’s option overlay. The option overlay is intended as a strategic, persistent exposure meant to hedge against market movements or capture movements in individual companies. If the market goes up, the Fund’s returns may outperform the market because the Advisor will sell or exercise the call options. If the market goes down, the Fund’s returns may fall less than the market because the Advisor will sell or exercise the put options. The Advisor generally selects options with strike prices at least 5% out of the money at purchase. A call option is out of the money if the strike price is higher at the time of purchase than the market price of the underlying asset. A put option is out of the money if the strike price is lower than the market price of the underlying asset. The Advisor selects options based upon its evaluation of relative value based on cost, strike price (price that the option can be bought or sold by the option holder) and maturity (the last date the option contract is valid) and will exercise or close the options based on maturity or portfolio rebalancing requirements. The Fund anticipates purchasing and selling options on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis, depending upon the Fund’s rebalancing requirements and the individual option expiration dates. However, the Fund may rebalance its option portfolio on a more frequent basis for a number of reasons such as market volatility renders the protection provided by the option strategy ineffective or an option position has appreciated to the point that it is prudent to decrease the Fund’s exposure and realize gains for the Fund’s shareholders. The Advisor actively trades options using a systematic proprietary approach that rebalances at least monthly. The Advisor manages the use of options so that the annualized cost of the put option overlay does not normally exceed 3% of the net assets of the Fund. While the option overlay is intended to improve the Fund’s performance, there is no guarantee that it will improve performance.




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If the Advisor determines that purchasing options is not a cost-effective way to implement the overlay strategy, it may employ options spreads. In a call option spread, the Fund purchases a call option while selling (writing) a call option that is further out of the money to partially offset the cost of the purchased option. In a put option spread the Fund purchases a put option while selling (writing) a put option that is further out of the money to partially offset the cost of the purchased option.

Principal Investment Risks

The Fund is subject to various risks, including the principal risks noted below, any of which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV, trading price, yield, total return and ability to meet its investment objective. You could lose all or part of your investment in the Fund, and the Fund could underperform other investments.
Active Management Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that the investment management strategy may not produce the intended results and may negatively impact Fund performance. The Advisor’s overlay strategy will not fully protect the Fund from declines in the market.
Authorized Participant Risk. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as an Authorized Participant on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that Authorized Participants exit the business or are unable to proceed with creation or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units, Fund shares may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to net asset value and possibly face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.




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Bitcoin Exposure Risk. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. The Fund may gain exposure to bitcoin by investing in companies that hold bitcoin on their balance sheets and, as a non-principal investment strategy, pooled investment vehicles that invest in bitcoin and certain cash-settled derivatives traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange linked to bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. If cryptocurrency markets continue to be subject to sharp fluctuations, the Fund’s shareholders may experience losses. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. The companies in which the Fund invests and the Fund’s indirect investment in bitcoin remain subject to volatility experienced by the cryptocurrency exchanges and other cryptocurrency trading venues. Such volatility can adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Blockchain Technology Investments Risk. An investment in companies actively engaged with blockchain technology (which underpins bitcoin and the Bitcoin network) may be subject to the following risks:

The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested. The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is less clear. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Theft, loss or destruction. Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.
Competing platforms and technologies. The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains.




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Cyber security incidents. Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.
Developmental risk. Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which the Fund invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.
Intellectual property claims. A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets. Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain platform is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.

Lack of regulation. Digital commodities such as cryptocurrencies and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.

Third party product defects or vulnerabilities. Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.




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Reliance on the Internet. Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect the Fund. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.
Line of business risk. Some of the companies in which the Fund may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.

COVID-19 Risk. An outbreak of infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has now been detected globally. COVID-19 has resulted in travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer demand, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of COVID-19, and other infectious illness outbreaks that may arise in the future, could adversely affect the economies of many countries or the entire global economy, individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. In addition, the impact of infectious illnesses in emerging market countries may be greater due to generally less established healthcare systems. Public health crises caused by the COVID-19 outbreak may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries or globally. As such, issuers of debt securities with operations, productions, offices, and/or personnel in (or other exposure to) areas affected with the virus may experience significant disruptions to their business and/or holdings.  The potential impact on the credit markets may include market illiquidity, defaults and bankruptcies, among other consequences, particularly on issuers in the airline, travel and leisure and retail sectors.  The extent to which COVID-19 will affect the Fund, the Fund’s service providers’ and/or issuer’s operations and results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain COVID-19. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected. As a result, whether or not the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in or with significant exposure to countries experiencing economic, political and/or financial difficulties, the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by such events. If there is a significant decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio, this may impact the Fund’s asset coverage levels for certain kinds of derivatives and other portfolio transactions. The duration of the COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on the global economy cannot be determined with certainty.




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Cybersecurity Risk. As part of its business, the Advisor processes, stores, and transmits large amounts of electronic information, including information relating to the transactions of the Fund. The Advisor and the Fund are therefore susceptible to cybersecurity risk. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information, and causing operational disruption. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund or its advisor, custodians, fund accountant, fund administrator, transfer agent, pricing vendors, and/or other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund also may incur substantial costs for cybersecurity risk management in order to guard against any cyber incidents in the future. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.
Derivatives Risk. Options are a derivative investment. The use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. These risks include (i) the risk that the counterparty to a derivative transaction may not fulfill its contractual obligations; (ii) risk of mispricing or improper valuation; and (iii) the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index.
Early Close/Trading Halt Risk. An exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on specific securities, or the ability to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments may be restricted, which may prevent the Fund from buying or selling certain securities or financial instruments. In these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to rebalance its portfolio, may be unable to accurately price its investments and may incur substantial trading losses.
Equity Risk. The net asset value of the Fund will fluctuate based on changes in the value of the equity securities held by the Fund. Equity prices can fall rapidly in response to developments affecting a specific company or industry, or to changing economic, political or market conditions.
ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF. As a result, the Fund is subject to the special risks, including:




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Not Individually Redeemable. The Fund’s shares (“Shares”) are not redeemable by retail investors and may be redeemed only by Authorized Participants at net asset value (“NAV”) and only in Creation Units. A retail investor generally incurs brokerage costs when selling shares.
Trading Issues. Trading in Shares on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that Shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange which may result in the Shares being delisted. An active trading market for the Shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as Authorized Participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Shares.
Cash purchases. To the extent Creation Units are purchased by APs in cash instead of in-kind, the Fund will incur certain costs such as brokerage expenses and taxable gains and losses. These costs could be imposed on the Fund and impact the Fund’s NAV if not fully offset by transaction fees paid by the APs.
Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for Shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the Shares. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to NAV.

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In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in the Shares and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.
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To the extent authorized participants exit the business or are unable to process creations or redemptions and no other AP can step in to do so, there may be a significantly reduced trading market in the Fund’s shares, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
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The market price of the Shares may deviate from the Fund’s NAV, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less the Shares than the Fund’s NAV, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for the Shares or in the closing price.
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When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.




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In stressed market conditions, the market for the Shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Shares and the Fund’s NAV.

Financial Technology Risk. Companies that are developing financial technologies such as blockchain technology that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Financial technology companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A financial technology company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, financial technology companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Foreign Securities and Emerging Markets Risk. Foreign securities have investment risks different from those associated with domestic securities. The value of foreign investments (including investments in ADRs) may be affected by the value of the local currency relative to the U.S. dollar, changes in exchange control regulations, application of foreign tax laws, changes in governmental economic or monetary policy, or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. There may be less government supervision of foreign markets, resulting in non-uniform accounting practices and less publicly available information about issuers of foreign securities. In addition, foreign brokerage commissions, custody fees, and other costs of investing in foreign securities are often higher than in the United States. Investments in foreign issues could be affected by other factors not present in the United States, including expropriation, armed conflict, confiscatory taxation, and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations. In addition to the risks of foreign securities in general, countries in emerging markets are more volatile and can have relatively unstable governments, social and legal systems that do not protect shareholders, economies based on only a few industries, and securities markets that trade a small number of issues which could reduce liquidity. There is also less publicly available information on emerging market companies due to differences in regulation, accounting, auditing, and financial recordkeeping requirements, and the information available may be unreliable or outdated.
Large Capitalization Risk. Large-capitalization companies may be less able than smaller capitalization companies to adapt to changing market conditions. Large-capitalization companies may be more mature and subject to more limited growth potential compared with smaller capitalization companies. During different market cycles, the performance of large capitalization companies has trailed the overall performance of the broader securities markets.




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Limited History Risk. The Fund is a new ETF and has a limited history of operations for investors to evaluate.
Market and Geopolitical Risk. The increasing interconnectivity between global economies and financial markets increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform due to inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, terrorism, regulatory events and governmental or quasi-governmental actions. The occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years may result in market volatility and may have long term effects on both the U.S. and global financial markets. It is not known how long such impacts will or would last, but there could be a prolonged period of global economic slowdown, which may impact your Fund investment.


New Advisor Risk. The Advisor has only recently begun serving as an investment advisor to ETFs. As a result, investors do not have a long-term track record of managing an ETF from which to judge the Advisor, and the Advisor may not achieve the intended result in managing the Fund.

Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund’s portfolio may focus on a limited number of investments and will be subject to potential for volatility than a diversified fund.
Option Risk. As the buyer of a put or call option, the Fund risks losing the entire premium invested in the option if the Fund does not exercise the option.
Over-the-Counter Market Risk. Securities and options traded in over-the-counter markets may trade less frequently and in limited volumes and thus exhibit more volatility and liquidity risk, and the prices paid by the Fund in over-the-counter transactions may include an undisclosed dealer markup. The Fund is also exposed to default by the over-the-counter option writer who may be unwilling or unable to perform its contractual obligations to the Fund.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may have a high turnover of the securities held in its portfolio. Increased portfolio turnover causes the Fund to incur higher brokerage costs, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. High rates of portfolio turnover may also result in the realization of short-term capital gains and losses.  Any distributions resulting from such gains will be considered ordinary income for federal income tax purposes.
Single Issuer Investment Risk. The Fund focuses its assets (i.e., invests up to 25% of its assets) in securities of a single issuer and, as a result, the Fund may be subject to greater volatility with respect to its portfolio securities than a Fund that is more broadly diversified. Accordingly, the Fund is subject to the risk that its performance may be hurt disproportionately by the poor performance of a single issuer.




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Small and Medium Capitalization Risk. The earnings and prospects of small and medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Small and medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.
Technology Sector Risk. The Fund may make investments in certain ETFs that are concentrated in the Information Technology sector, which means the ETFs are more likely to be more adversely affected by any negative performance of the Information Technology sector than ETFs that have more diversified holdings across a number of sectors. Market or economic factors impacting technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a major effect on the value of the ETFs’ investments.
Underlying Fund Risk. ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to investment advisory and other expenses, which will be indirectly paid by the Fund. As a result, the cost of investing in the Fund will be higher than the cost of investing directly in the ETFs and may be higher than other funds that invest directly in stocks and bonds. Each of the ETFs is subject to its own specific risks, but the Advisor expects the principal investments risks of such ETFs will be similar to the risks of investing in the Fund.
Temporary Defensive Positions

From time to time, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions, which are inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies, in attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions. For example, the Fund may hold all or a portion of its assets in money market instruments, including cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, other investment grade fixed income securities, certificates of deposit, bankers acceptances, commercial paper, money market funds and repurchase agreements. While the Fund is in a defensive position, the opportunity to achieve its investment objective will be limited. If the Fund invests in a money market fund, the shareholders of the Fund generally will be subject to duplicative management fees. Although the Fund would do this only in seeking to avoid losses, the Fund will be unable to pursue its investment objective during that time, and it could reduce the benefit from any upswing in the market.

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure
A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).





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MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Investment Advisor

Volt Equity LLC (the “Advisor”), acts as the Fund’s investment advisor pursuant to an advisory agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Fund (the “Advisory Agreement”).  The Advisor, located at 2193 Fillmore St., San Francisco, CA 94115, is registered with the SEC as an investment advisor. Pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, the Advisor furnishes an investment program for the Fund and manages the investment portfolio and business affairs of the Fund. 
Pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, the Advisor is paid a monthly management fee from the Fund based on a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets, at an annual rate of 0.85%. The management agreement between the Fund and the Advisor provides that the Advisor will pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except for any interest expenses, taxes, brokerage expenses, future Rule 12b-1 fees (if any), acquired fund fees and expenses, and expenses incidental to a meeting of the Fund’s shareholders.


Approval of Advisory Agreement.  A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund’s semi-annual report to shareholders for the period ended January 31, 2022.

Portfolio Manager

The following portfolio manager is primarily responsible for the day-to-day operation of the Fund:
Tad Park has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since its inception.  Mr. Park is the Chief Executive Officer and the founder of the Advisor. Prior to founding the Advisor in 2020, from 2017 to 2020, he was the first Senior Software Engineer of the Series B round for Sonder Corp., which went on to become a successful Silicon Valley disruptor worth over one billion dollars. From 2015 to 2017, he worked as a senior developer and team leader for an information technology and services company. Mr. Park has a Bachelor’s degree in Environmental Economics and Policy Management from the University of California, Berkeley.
The Statement of Additional Information provides additional information about the portfolio manager’s compensation structure, other accounts managed by the portfolio manager and the portfolio manager’s ownership of securities of the Fund.



PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES

Shares of the Fund may be acquired or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof, as discussed in the “How to Buy and Sell Shares” Section of this prospectus. Only an Authorized Participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Once created, shares of the Fund generally trade in the secondary market in amounts less than a Creation Unit. Most investors buy and sell shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers.




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Shares of the Fund are listed for trading in the secondary market on the Exchange. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares. When buying or selling shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and other charges. In addition, you may incur the costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for shares of the Fund (ask) when buying or selling shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Because the Fund’s shares trade at market prices rather than net asset value, the price you pay or receive for the Fund’s shares may greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount) of such shares. The Fund trades under the Exchange ticker symbol BTCR. You can access recent information, including information on the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, on the Fund’s website at www.voltfunds.com. The median bid-ask spread for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021 is not available because the Fund had not yet commenced operations. The median bid-ask spread for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2022 will be available on the Fund’s website at www.voltfunds.com when it becomes available.
Book Entry. Shares of the Fund are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of, and holds legal title to, all outstanding shares of a Fund and is recognized as the owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund.
Investors owning shares of the Fund are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for shares of the Fund. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book- entry or “street name” form.



HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

Pricing Fund Shares
The trading price of the Fund’s Shares on the Exchange is based on the market price, not the Fund’s NAV, so it may differ from a Fund’s daily NAV and can be affected by market forces such as supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. Information regarding the number of days the market price of the Fund’s shares was greater than the Fund’s NAV and the number of days it was less than the Fund’s NAV (i.e., premium or discount) for the most recently completed calendar year, and the most recently completed calendar quarter will be available on the Fund’s website at www.voltfunds.com.




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Determination of Net Asset Value
The NAV per Share for the Fund is determined once daily as of the close of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), usually 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for trading, based on prices at the time of closing provided that (a) any Fund assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollars at the prevailing market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more major banks or dealers that makes a two-way market in such currencies (or a data service provider based on quotations received from such banks or dealers); and (b) U.S. fixed income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time for trading in fixed income instruments in a particular market or exchange. The NAV of the Fund is calculated by dividing the value of the net assets of the Fund (i.e., the value of the Fund’s total assets minus its total liabilities) by the total number of outstanding shares of the Fund.
Fixed income securities are valued at market value. Market value generally means a valuation (i) obtained from an exchange, a pricing service or a major market maker (or dealer), (ii) based on a price quotation or other equivalent indication of value supplied by an exchange, a pricing service or a major market maker (or dealer), or (iii) based on amortized cost. The Fund’s debt securities are thus valued by reference to a combination of transactions and quotations for the same or other securities believed to be comparable in quality, coupon, maturity, type of issue, call provisions, trading characteristics and other features deemed to be relevant. To the extent a Fund’s debt securities are valued based on price quotations or other equivalent indications of value provided by a third-party pricing service, any such third-party pricing service may use a variety of methodologies to value some or all of a Fund’s debt securities to determine the market price.  For example, the prices of securities with characteristics like those held by a Fund may be used to assist with the pricing process. In addition, the pricing service may use proprietary pricing models.
Equity securities are valued at the last reported sale price on the principal exchange on which such securities are traded, as of the close of regular trading on the Exchange on the day the securities are being valued or, if there are no sales, at the mean of the most recent bid and asked prices. Equity securities that are traded in over-the-counter markets are valued at the NASDAQ Official Closing Price as of the close of regular trading on the Exchange on the day the securities are valued or, if there are no sales, at the mean of the most recent bid and asked prices.
Securities will be valued at fair value when market quotations (or other market valuations such as those obtained from a pricing service) are not readily available or are deemed unreliable. Fair value determinations are made in accordance with the policies and procedures approved by the Board. Market quotations may not be readily available or may be determined to be unreliable when a security’s value or a meaningful portion of the Fund’s portfolio is believed to have been materially affected by a significant event. A significant event is an event that is likely to materially affect the value of the Fund’s investment. Such events may include a natural disaster, an economic event like a bankruptcy filing, a trading halt in a security, an unscheduled early market close or a substantial fluctuation in domestic and foreign markets that has occurred between the close of the principal exchange and the Exchange. In such a case, the value for a security is likely to be different from the last quoted market price. In addition, due to the subjective and variable nature of fair market value pricing, it is possible that the value determined for a particular asset may be materially different from the value realized upon such asset’s sale.




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Trading in securities on many foreign securities exchanges and over-the-counter markets is normally completed before the close of business on the NYSE. In addition, securities trading in a particular country or countries may not take place on all U.S. business days or may take place on days that are not U.S. business days. Changes in valuations of certain securities may occur at times or on days on which the Fund’s NAV is not calculated and on which a Fund does not affect sales or redemptions of its shares.
Creation Units
Investors such as market makers, large investors, and institutions who wish to deal in Creation Units (large specified blocks of 10,000 shares or multiples thereof) directly with a Fund must have entered into an authorized participant agreement with Capital Investment Group, Inc. (the “Distributor”), and be accepted by the transfer agent, or purchase through a dealer that has entered into such an agreement. Set forth below is a brief description of the procedures applicable to purchase and redemption of Creation Units. For more detailed information, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” in the Statement of Additional Information.
How to Buy Creation Units
In order to purchase Creation Units of the Fund, an investor must generally deposit a designated portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) (and/or an amount in cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities) and generally make a cash payment referred to as the “Cash Component.” For those APs that are not eligible for trading a Deposit Security, and in such other circumstances as the Sub-Advisor believes are in the best interests of a Fund, custom orders are available. The list of the names and the amounts of the Deposit Securities is made available by the Fund’s custodian through the facilities of the NSCC immediately prior to the opening of business each day of the Exchange. The Cash Component represents the difference between the NAV of a Creation Unit and the market value of the Deposit Securities. In the case of custom orders, cash- in-lieu may be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Securities that either the AP may not be eligible to trade, or the Sub-Advisor believes are in the best interests of a Fund not to accept in-kind.




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Orders must be placed in proper form by or through an AP that is a participant of the DTC (“DTC Participant”). All standard orders must be placed for one or more whole Creation Units of Shares of a Fund and must be received by the Distributor in proper form no later than the close of regular trading on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) (“Closing Time”) in order to receive that day’s closing NAV per Share. In the case of custom orders, the order must be received by the Distributor no later than one hour prior to Closing Time in order to receive that day’s closing NAV per Share. A custom order may be placed by an AP in the event that the Trust permits or requires the substitution of an amount of cash to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security which may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or which may not be eligible for trading by such AP or the investor for which it is acting or any other relevant reason. A fixed creation transaction fee of $500 per transaction (the “Creation Transaction Fee”) is applicable to each transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased in the transaction. An additional variable charge for cash creations or partial cash creations may also be imposed to compensate the Fund for the costs associated with buying the applicable securities. The Fund may adjust these fees from time to time based on actual experience. The price for each Creation Unit will equal the Fund’s daily NAV per share times the number of Shares in a Creation Unit plus the fees described above and, if applicable, any transfer taxes.
Shares of the Fund may be issued in advance of receipt of all Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain cash at least equal to 105% and up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities on deposit with the Trust.
For more detailed information, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” in the Statement of Additional Information.
Legal Restrictions on Transactions in Certain Securities
An investor subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security required to be deposited in connection with the purchase of a Creation Unit may, at a Fund’s discretion, be permitted to deposit an equivalent amount of cash in substitution for any security which would otherwise be included in the Deposit Securities applicable to the purchase of a Creation Unit. For more detailed information, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” in the Statement of Additional Information.

Redemption of Creation Units
Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their NAV and only on a day the Exchange is open for business. The Fund’s custodian makes available immediately prior to the opening of business each day of the Exchange, through the facilities of the NSCC, the list of the names and the amounts of the Fund’s portfolio securities that will be applicable that day to redemption requests in proper form (“Redemption Securities”). Redemption Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities, which are applicable to purchases of Creation Units. Unless cash redemptions or partial cash redemptions are available or specified for a Fund as set forth below, the redemption proceeds consist of the Redemption Securities, plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of Shares being redeemed as next determined after receipt by the transfer agent of a redemption request in proper form, and the value of the Redemption Securities (the “Cash Redemption Amount”), less the applicable redemption fee and, if applicable, any transfer taxes. Should the Redemption Securities have a value greater than the NAV of Shares being redeemed, a compensating cash payment to a Fund equal to the differential, plus the applicable redemption fee and, if applicable, any transfer taxes will be required to be arranged for, by or on behalf of the redeeming shareholder.




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An order to redeem Creation Units of a Fund may only be effected by or through an Authorized Participant. An order to redeem must be placed for one or more whole Creation Units and must be received by the transfer agent in proper form no later than the close of regular trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) in order to receive that day’s closing NAV per Share. In the case of custom orders, the order must be received by the transfer agent no later than 3:00 p.m. Eastern time.
For more detailed information, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” in the Statement of Additional Information.
Distributions
Fund shareholders are entitled to their share of a Fund’s income and net realized gains on its investments. The Fund pays out substantially all its net earnings to its shareholders as “distributions.” Income dividends, if any, are distributed to shareholders quarterly. Net capital gains are distributed annually. Dividends may be declared and paid more frequently to comply with the distribution requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Some portion of each distribution may result in a return of capital (which is a return of the shareholder’s investment in the Fund). Fund shareholders will be notified regarding the portion of the distribution that represents a return of capital.
Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through which the shares were purchased makes such option available.



FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

Fund shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by APs, and the vast majority of trading in Fund shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that Fund shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Fund shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that a Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Fund’s shares.




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DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

The Fund has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees to the distributor and other firms that provide distribution and shareholder services (“Service Providers”). If a Service Provider provides these services, the Fund may pay fees at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act.
No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Funds and will not be paid by the Funds unless authorized by the Trust’s Board of Trustees. There are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.



FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

Administrator. The Trust has entered into a Fund Accounting & Administration Agreement with The Nottingham Company (the “Administrator”), located at 116 South Franklin Street, Post Office Box 69, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27802-0069. Under the Fund Administration Agreement, The Nottingham Company will serve as fund accountant, administrator and in other capacities for the Fund.
Custodian. Clear Street, LLC (the “Custodian”), located at 55 Broadway, New York, NY 10006 is the custodian for the Fund. The Custodian is responsible for holding all cash assets and all portfolio securities of the Funds, releasing and delivering such securities as directed by the Fund, maintaining bank accounts in the names of the Fund, receiving for deposit into such accounts payments for shares of the Fund, collecting income and other payments due the Fund with respect to portfolio securities, and paying out monies of the Fund.
Transfer Agent. Nottingham Shareholder Services LLC (the “Transfer Agent”), located at 116 South Franklin Street, PO Box 4365, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27803-0365, is the transfer agent for the Funds and serves as the dividend disbursing agent for the Fund.
Counsel. Greenberg Traurig LLP is counsel to the Trust.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. BBD, LLP, located at 1835 Market Street, 3rd Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103 serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. They audit the Fund’s financial statements and perform other related audit services.





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FEDERAL INCOME TAXATION

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

The Fund makes distributions,
You sell your Shares listed on the Exchange, and
You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

Taxes on Distributions


Distributions from the Fund's net investment income (other than qualified dividend income), including distributions of income from securities lending and distributions out of the Fund's net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income. Distributions by the Fund of net long-term capital gains in excess of net short-term capital losses (capital gain dividends) are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the Fund's shares. Distributions by the Fund that qualify as qualified dividend income are taxable to you at long-term capital gain rates. Long-term capital gains and qualified dividend income are generally eligible for taxation at a maximum rate of 15% for non-corporate shareholders with incomes below approximately $400,000 ($450,000 if married and filing jointly), amounts adjusted annually for inflation, and 20% for individuals with any income above these amounts that is net long-term capital gain or qualified dividend income. In addition, a 3.8% U.S. federal Medicare contribution tax is imposed on “net investment income,” including, but not limited to, interest, dividends, and net gain, of U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 (or $250,000 if married and filing jointly) and of estates and trusts.
Dividends will be qualified dividend income to you if they are attributable to qualified dividend income received by the Fund. Generally, qualified dividend income includes dividend income from taxable U.S. corporations, provided that the Fund satisfies certain holding period requirements in respect of the stock of such corporations and has not hedged its position in the stock in certain ways. Substitute dividends received by the Fund with respect to dividends paid on securities lent out will not be qualified dividend income. For this purpose, a qualified non-U.S. corporation means any non-U.S. corporation that is eligible for benefits under a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States, which includes an exchange of information program or if the stock with respect to which the dividend was paid is readily tradable on an established United States securities market. The term excludes a corporation that is a passive foreign investment company.




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Dividends received by the Fund from a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) or another RIC generally are qualified dividend income only to the extent the dividend distributions are made out of qualified dividend income received by such REIT or RIC. It is expected that dividends received by the Fund from a REIT and distributed to a shareholder generally will be taxable to the shareholder as ordinary income.
For a dividend to be treated as qualified dividend income, the dividend must be received with respect to a share of stock held without being hedged by the Fund, and with respect to a share of the Fund held without being hedged by you, for 61 days during the 121-day period beginning at the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date.
If your Fund shares are loaned out pursuant to a securities lending arrangement, you may lose the ability to treat Fund dividends paid while the shares are held by the borrower as qualified dividend income. In addition, you may lose the ability to use foreign tax credits passed through by the Fund if your Fund shares are loaned out pursuant to a securities lending agreement.
In general, your distributions are subject to U.S. federal income tax for the year when they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year.
If the Fund's distributions exceed current and accumulated earnings and profits, all or a portion of the distributions made in the taxable year may be recharacterized as a return of capital to shareholders. Distributions in excess of the Fund's minimum distribution requirements, but not in excess of the Fund's earnings and profits, will be taxable to shareholders and will not constitute nontaxable returns of capital. A return of capital distribution generally will not be taxable but will reduce the shareholder's cost basis and result in a higher capital gain or lower capital loss when those shares on which the distribution was received are sold. Once a shareholder's cost basis is reduced to zero, further distributions will be treated as capital gain, if the shareholder holds shares of the Fund as capital assets.
If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a non-U.S. entity, the Fund's ordinary income dividends (which include distributions of net short-term capital gains) will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate applies, provided that withholding tax will generally not apply to any gain or income realized by a non-U.S. shareholder in respect of any distributions of long-term capital gains or upon the sale or other disposition of shares of the Fund.




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A 30% withholding tax is currently imposed on U.S.-source dividends, interest, and other income items, and will be imposed on proceeds from the sale of property producing U.S.-source dividends and interest paid after December 31, 2018, to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. To avoid withholding, foreign financial institutions will need to (i) enter into agreements with the IRS that state that they will provide the IRS information, including the names, addresses, and taxpayer identification numbers of direct and indirect U.S. account holders, comply with due diligence procedures with respect to the identification of U.S. accounts, report to the IRS certain information with respect to U.S. accounts maintained, agree to withhold tax on certain payments made to non-compliant foreign financial institutions or to account holders who fail to provide the required information, and determine certain other information as to their account holders, or (ii) in the event that an applicable intergovernmental agreement and implementing legislation are adopted, provide local revenue authorities with similar account holder information. Other foreign entities will need to provide the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner or certifications of no substantial U.S. ownership unless certain exceptions apply or agree to provide certain information to other revenue authorities for transmittal to the IRS.
Dividends, interest, and capital gains earned by the Fund with respect to non-U.S. securities may give rise to withholding, capital gains and other taxes imposed by non-U.S. countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of the total assets of the Fund at the close of a year consists of non-U.S. stocks or securities (generally, for this purpose, depositary receipts, no matter where traded, of non-U.S. companies are treated as “non-U.S.”), the Fund may “pass through” to you certain non-U.S. income taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by the Fund. This means that you would be considered to have received as an additional dividend your share of such non-U.S. taxes, but you may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating your taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating your U.S. federal income tax.
For purposes of foreign tax credits for U.S. shareholders of the Fund, foreign capital gains taxes may not produce associated foreign source income, thereby limiting a U.S. person's ability to use such credits.

If you are a resident or a citizen of the United States, by law, back-up withholding at a 28% rate will apply to your distributions and proceeds if you have not provided a taxpayer identification number or social security number and made other required certifications.
Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales
Currently, any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.




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Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

An Authorized Participant who exchanges equity securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and the Cash Component paid. A person who exchanges Creation Units for equity securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities received and the Cash Redemption Amount. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether the wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

Under current federal tax laws, any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less.
If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many and at what price you purchased or sold Shares.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in a Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You may also be subject to state and local taxation on Fund distributions, and sales of Fund Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Fund Shares under all applicable tax laws.



OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION

For purposes of the 1940 Act, a Fund is treated as a registered investment company. Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including the Fund. The SEC has issued an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies to invest in the exchange-traded funds offered by the Trust beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such registered investment companies enter into an agreement with the Trust.

Portfolio Holdings Information
A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of its portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”). On each business day, before commencement of trading on the Exchange, the Fund will disclose the identities and quantities of the Fund’s portfolio holdings that will form the basis for the Fund’s calculation of NAV at the end of the business day. These disclosures can be found at www.voltfunds.com.  Fund fact sheets provide information regarding the Fund’s top holdings and may be requested by calling 1-800-773-3863.




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Premium/Discount Information
Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund during the prior calendar year and subsequent quarters, when available, will be available at www.voltfunds.com.



FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Financial highlights for the Fund are not available because, as of the effective date of this Prospectus, the Fund has not commenced operations and therefore has no financial highlights to report.





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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION





Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and
Tech ETF
(Ticker:  BTCR)



For more information visit www.voltfunds.com or call 1-800-773-3863

Copies of the Prospectus, SAI, and recent shareholder reports can be found on our website at www.voltfunds.com. For more information about the Fund, you may request a copy of the SAI. The SAI provides detailed information about the Fund and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. This means that the SAI, for legal purposes, is a part of this Prospectus. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Annual and Semi-Annual reports to shareholders. The Fund’s Annual Report will include a discussion of market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.
If you have any questions about the Fund or shares of the Fund or you wish to obtain the SAI, Semi-Annual or Annual Report free of charge, please:

 
Call:
 
1-800-773-3863(toll free)
Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (Eastern time)

 
 
E-mail:
shareholders@ncfunds.com

 
Write:
 
Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF
116 South Franklin Street
Post Office Box 4365
Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27803-0365
 

Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

No person is authorized to give any information or to make any representations about the Fund and its shares not contained in this Prospectus and you should not rely on any other information. Read and keep this Prospectus for future reference.


Investment Company Act File Number 811-22507















STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION




Fund

Ticker
Principal Listing
Exchange
 
Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF
 
 
BTCR
 
 
NYSE Arca
 


October 1, 2021


A series of the

Volt ETF Trust
116 South Franklin Street
Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27804
Telephone 1-800-773-3863






This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is meant to be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF dated October 1, 2021, as amended or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”), and is incorporated by reference in its entirety into the Prospectus. Because this SAI is not itself a prospectus, no investment in shares of the Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF should be made solely upon the information contained herein. Copies of the Prospectus, annual report, and/or semi-annual report may be obtained at no charge by writing or calling the Fund at the address or phone number shown above or online at www.voltequity.com. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meanings as in the Prospectus.

Reference to the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, (the “Investment Company Act” or the “1940 Act”), or other applicable law, will include any rules promulgated thereunder and any guidance, interpretations or modifications by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, including court interpretations, and exemptive, no action or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

THE FUND
 
2
 
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
 
2
 
 
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS AND POLICIES
 
 
3
 
 
INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RISKS
 
 
4
 
 
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RISKS
 
 
17
 
 
GENERAL
 
 
17
 
 
EQUITY SECURITIES
 
 
17
 
 
NON-U.S. AND EMERGING MARKETS SECURITIES
 
 
17
 
 
TAX RISKS
 
 
18
 
 
CONTINUOUS OFFERING
 
 
18
 
 
MANAGEMENT
 
 
19
 
 
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
 
 
25
 
 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TRUST
 
 
28
 
 
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS
 
 
30
 
 
TAXES
 
37
 
DETERMINATION OF NAV
 
41
 
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
 
44
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
44
 
APPENDIX A
 
45









THE FUND

Volt ETF Trust (the “Trust”) was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on July 30, 2010 and is authorized to have multiple series or portfolios. The Trust is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) as an open-end management investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). Prior to May 25, 2021 the name of the Trust was Leeward Investment Trust.  The offering of the Fund's shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the ”Securities Act”). The Trust currently consists of 1 separate series. This SAI relates to Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF (the “Fund”), which is a separate, non-diversified series of the Trust. The Fund is an exchange-traded fund (commonly referred to as an “ETF”). ETFs are funds that trade like other publicly- traded securities. The Fund is actively managed and is not intended to track a market index. The Fund is actively managed and is not intended to track a market index. The shares of the Fund are referred to herein as “Shares” or “Fund Shares.”
The Fund is managed by Volt Equity LLC (the “Advisor”).
This SAI describes the financial history, management and operation of the Fund, as well as the Fund’s investment objective and policies. It should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus.
Investments in the Funds are not:
Deposits or obligations of any bank;
Guaranteed or endorsed by any bank; or
Federally insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board, or any other federal agency.

The Fund will offer and issue Shares at net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each a “Creation Unit” or a “Creation Unit Aggregation”), generally in exchange for a basket of securities specified by the Fund (the “Deposit Securities”), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the “Cash Component”).
The Fund’s Shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE” or the “Exchange”) under the trading symbols set out on the front cover.
Fund Shares will trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at or above NAV. Shares are redeemable only in Creation Unit Aggregations and, generally, in exchange for portfolio securities and a specified cash payment. Creation Units are aggregations of 10,000 Shares. In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, the Trust may lower the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.
The Trust reserves the right to offer a “cash” option for creations and redemptions of Fund Shares. Fund Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal 105% and up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. See the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” section. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees may be imposed that will be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities.


EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading, and trade throughout the day, on the Exchange. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of shares of the Fund will continue to be met. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the shares of the Fund from listing if (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of the Fund for 30 or more consecutive trading days; or (ii) any other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will also remove the shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
As in the case of other stocks traded on the Exchange, broker’s commissions on transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.


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The Trust reserves the right to adjust the share prices of the Fund in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund.

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS AND POLICIES

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the “Board”) as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. The investment objective of the Fund and all other investment policies or practices of the Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of the outstanding voting securities” means the lesser of the vote of (i) 67% or more of the Shares of the Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding Shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the Shares of the Fund.
As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund (except as otherwise noted below) may not:
(1) Concentrate its investments by investing 25% or more of its total assets in any industry or group of industries, except that the Fund will concentrate (i.e., will invest 25% or more of its assets under normal circumstances) in the information technology industry. This restriction does not limit the Fund's: (i) investments in securities of other investment companies, (ii) investments in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or (iii) investments in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities.
(2) Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as interpreted, modified, or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
(3) Issue any senior security, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
(4) Make loans, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as interpreted, modified, or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
(5) Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this restriction shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities of companies engaged in the real estate business or securities or other instruments backed by real estate or mortgages), or commodities or commodity contracts.
(6) Engage in the business of underwriting securities issued by other persons, except to the extent that the Fund may technically be deemed to be an underwriter under the Securities Act, in disposing of portfolio securities.
Except for restriction (2), if a percentage restriction is adhered to at the time of investment, a later increase in percentage resulting from a change in market value of the investment or the total assets, or the sale of a security out of the portfolio, will not constitute a violation of that restriction.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to borrowing money set forth in (2) above, the Investment Company Act permits the Fund to borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose, and to borrow up to 5% of the Fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes. (The Fund’s total assets include the amounts being borrowed.) To limit the risks attendant to borrowing, the Investment Company Act requires the Fund to maintain at all times an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings. Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of the Fund’s total assets (including amounts borrowed), minus liabilities other than borrowings, bears to the aggregate amount of all borrowings. Borrowing money to increase portfolio holdings is known as “leveraging.” Certain trading practices and investments, such as reverse repurchase agreements, may be considered to be borrowings or involve leverage and thus are subject to the Investment Company Act restrictions. In accordance with SEC staff guidance and interpretations, when the Fund engages in such transactions, the Fund instead of maintaining asset coverage of at least 300%, may segregate or earmark liquid assets, or enter into an offsetting position, in an amount at least equal to the Fund’s exposure, on a mark-to-market basis, to the transaction (as calculated pursuant to requirements of the SEC). The policy in (2) above will be interpreted to permit the Fund to engage in trading practices and investments that may be considered to be borrowing or to involve leverage to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act and to permit the Fund to segregate or earmark liquid assets or enter into offsetting positions in accordance with the Investment Company Act. Short-term credits necessary for the settlement of securities transactions and arrangements with respect to securities lending will not be considered to be borrowings under the policy. Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.


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Senior securities may include any obligation or instrument issued by a fund evidencing indebtedness. The 1940 Act generally prohibits funds from issuing senior securities, although it does not treat certain transactions as senior securities, such as certain borrowings, short sales, firm commitment agreements, and standby commitments, with appropriate earmarking or segregation of assets to cover such obligations.  The Fund’s specific policies for segregation of assets are described in “Additional Information About Investment Policies” above.
For purposes of the Fund’s concentration policy, if the Fund invests in one or more investment companies, the Fund will examine the holdings of such investment companies to ensure that the Fund is not indirectly concentrating its investments in a particular industry. In determining the exposure of the Fund to a particular industry for purposes of the fundamental investment restriction on concentration, the Fund currently uses Standard & Poor’s Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) in order to classify industries. With respect to the fundamental investment restrictions above (other than those involving senior securities and borrowings), if a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction (i.e., percentage limitations are determined at the time of purchase).
In addition to the foregoing fundamental investment policies, the Fund is also subject to the non- fundamental policy not to invest in the securities of a company for the purpose of exercising management or control, or purchase or otherwise acquire any illiquid security, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, which currently permits up to 15% of the Fund’s net assets to be invested in illiquid securities (calculated at the time of investment).
INVESTMENT POLICIES AND RISKS

The investment objective and principal investment strategies for the Fund are provided in the Prospectus. The Fund may not invest in all of the investments listed below. Unless a strategy, instrument, or policy described below is specifically prohibited by the Fund’s investment restrictions or by applicable law, the Fund may, but will not necessarily, engage in each of the investment practices described below. Except as stated elsewhere in the Prospectus or this SAI, to the extent the Fund has reserved the freedom to invest in a type of investment or to utilize a particular investment practice, the Fund may invest in such investment or engage in such investment practice without limit.
A discussion of the risks associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the Prospectus under the headings “Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund,” and “Principal Risks for the Fund.” The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of the Prospectus.
General Considerations and Risks. Investments in the Fund should be made with an understanding that the value of the portfolio of securities held by the Fund may fluctuate in accordance with changes in the financial condition of the issuers of the portfolio securities, the value of common stocks generally, and other factors.
Bitcoin Exposure Risk. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. The Fund may gain exposure to bitcoin by investing in companies that hold bitcoin on their balance sheets and, as a non-principal investment strategy, pooled investment vehicles that invest in bitcoin and certain cash-settled derivatives traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange linked to bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. If cryptocurrency markets continue to be subject to sharp fluctuations, the Fund’s shareholders may experience losses. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. The companies in which the Fund invests and the Fund’s indirect investment in bitcoin remain subject to volatility experienced by the cryptocurrency exchanges and other cryptocurrency trading venues. Such volatility can adversely affect an investment in the Fund.


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Blockchain Technology Investments Risk. An investment in companies actively engaged with blockchain technology (which underpins bitcoin and the Bitcoin network) may be subject to the following risks:

The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested. The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is less clear. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Theft, loss or destruction. Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.
Competing platforms and technologies. The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains.
Cyber security incidents. Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.
Developmental risk. Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which the Fund invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.
Intellectual property claims. A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in the Fund.
Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets. Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain platform is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.
Lack of regulation. Digital commodities such as cryptocurrencies and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.
Third party product defects or vulnerabilities. Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.
Reliance on the Internet. Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect the Fund. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.


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Line of business risk. Some of the companies in which the Fund may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.

Common Stock. Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, have generally inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors of, or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks issued by the issuer. Further, unlike debt securities which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, will be subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
Loans of Portfolio Securities. The Fund may lend its investment securities to approved borrowers. Any gain or loss on the market price of the securities loaned that might occur during the term of the loan would be for the account of the Fund. These loans cannot exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets.
Approved borrowers are brokers, dealers, domestic and foreign banks, or other financial institutions that meet credit or other requirements as established by the securities lending agent, so long as the terms, the structure, and the aggregate amount of such loans are not inconsistent with the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder or interpretations of the SEC, which require that (a) the borrowers pledge and maintain with the Fund collateral consisting of cash, an irrevocable letter of credit issued by a bank, or securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government having a value at all times of not less than 102% of the value of the securities loaned (on a “mark-to-market” basis), and maintained in an amount equal to at least 100% of the value of the portfolio securities being lent; (b) the loan be made subject to termination by the Fund at any time; and (c) the Fund receives reasonable interest on the loan. From time to time, the Fund may return a part of the interest earned from the investment of collateral received from securities loaned to the borrower and/or a third-party securities lending agent that is unaffiliated with the Fund.
Risks of Securities Lending. The Fund will not have the right to vote securities while they are on loan, but it will recall securities on loan if the Advisor determines that the shareholder meeting is called for purposes of voting on material events that could have a material impact on the Fund’s loaned securities and for which the vote could be material to the Fund. The Fund would receive income in lieu of dividends on loaned securities and may, at the same time, generate income on the loan collateral or on the investment of any cash collateral.
Securities lending involves a risk of loss because the borrower may fail to return the securities in a timely manner or at all. If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, the Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering securities loaned or gaining access to the collateral. If the Fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement security in the market. Lending securities entails a risk of loss to the Fund if, and to the extent that, the market value of the loaned securities increases and the collateral is not increased accordingly. Securities lending also involves exposure to “operational risk” (the risk of loss resulting from errors in the settlement and accounting process) and “gap risk” (the risk that the return on cash collateral reinvestments will be less than the fees paid to the borrower).
Any cash received as collateral for loaned securities may be invested in short-term liquid fixed income securities or in money market or short-term mutual funds, or similar investment vehicles. The Fund bears the risk of such investments. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. For purposes of determining whether the Fund is complying with its investment policies, strategies, and restrictions, the Fund or the Advisor will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund but will not consider any collateral received as the Fund asset. The Fund may have to pay the borrower a fee based on the amount of cash collateral. The Fund may pay lending fees to a party arranging the loan.


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Senior Securities. In general, the Fund may not issue any class of senior security, except within the limitations of the 1940 Act. These limitations allow the Fund to (i) borrow from banks, provided that immediately following any such borrowing there is an asset coverage of at least 300% (the “Asset Coverage Requirement”) for all Fund borrowings, and (ii) engage in trading practices which could be deemed to involve the issuance of a senior security, including but not limited to options, futures, forward contracts, and reverse repurchase agreements, provided that the Fund earmarks or segregates liquid assets in accordance with applicable SEC regulations and interpretations.
Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements pursuant to which securities are acquired by the Fund from a third party with the understanding that they will be repurchased by the seller at a fixed price on an agreed date. These agreements may be made with respect to any of the portfolio securities in which the Fund are authorized to invest. Repurchase agreements may be characterized as loans secured by the underlying securities. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with (i) member banks of the Federal Reserve System having total assets in excess of $500 million and (ii) securities dealers (“Qualified Institutions”). The Advisor will monitor the continued creditworthiness of Qualified Institutions.
The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the seller of securities under a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Fund will seek to dispose of such securities, which action could involve costs or delays. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, the Fund’s ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. Finally, it is possible that the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying securities. To minimize this risk, the securities underlying the repurchase agreement will be held by the custodian at all times in an amount at least equal to the repurchase price, including accrued interest. If the seller fails to repurchase the securities, the Fund may suffer a loss to the extent proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase price.
The resale price reflects the purchase price plus an agreed upon market rate of interest. The collateral is marked-to-market daily.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities with an agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price, date, and interest payment and have the characteristics of borrowing. The securities purchased with the Fund obtained from the agreement and securities collateralizing the agreement will have maturity dates no later than the repayment date. Generally, the effect of such transactions is that the Fund can recover all or most of the cash invested in the portfolio securities involved during the term of the reverse repurchase agreement, while in many cases the Fund is able to keep some of the interest income associated with those securities. Such transactions are only advantageous if the Fund has an opportunity to earn a greater rate of return on the cash derived from these transactions than the interest cost of obtaining the same amount of cash. Opportunities to realize earnings from the use of the proceeds equal to or greater than the interest required to be paid may not always be available and the Fund intends to use the reverse repurchase technique only when the Advisor believes it will be advantageous to the Fund. The use of reverse repurchase agreements may exaggerate any interim increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’ assets. The custodian bank will maintain a separate account for the Fund with securities having a value equal to or greater than such commitments. Under the 1940 Act, reverse repurchase agreements are considered loans.
Money Market Instruments. The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in high-quality money market instruments on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity. The instruments in which the Fund may invest include: (i) short-term obligations issued by the U.S. Government; (ii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances of U.S. and foreign banks and similar institutions; (iii) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or “A-1+” or “A-1” by Standard & Poor’s or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Advisor; (iv) repurchase agreements; and (v) money market mutual funds. CDs are short-term negotiable obligations of commercial banks. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
Investment Companies. The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies (including money market funds). Under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s investment in investment companies is limited to, subject to certain exceptions: (i) 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of any one investment company, (ii) 5% of the Fund’s total assets with respect to any one investment company, and (iii) 10% of the Fund’s total assets of investment companies in the aggregate.


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Illiquid Securities. The Fund may invest in illiquid assets, including Rule 144A securities deemed illiquid by the Advisor. Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or other restrictions on resale and other instruments that lack readily available markets.
Risks of Derivatives. Derivatives are financial contracts whose value depends on, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate, or index, and may relate to stocks, bonds, interest rates, currencies or currency exchange rates, commodities, and related indexes. The various derivative instruments that the Fund may use are described in more detail under “Futures and Options” and “Swap Agreements” in this SAI. The Fund may, but is not required to, use derivative instruments for risk management purposes or as part of its investment strategies.
The Fund’s use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other traditional investments. Derivatives are subject to a number of risks including liquidity risk, market risk, credit risk, default risk, counterparty risk, and management risk. They also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of the derivative may not correlate exactly with the change in the value of the underlying asset, rate or index. Also, suitable derivative transactions may not be available in all circumstances and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in these transactions to reduce exposure to other risks when that would be beneficial.
In October 2020, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies that will rescind and withdraw the guidance of the SEC and its staff regarding asset segregation and cover transactions. The final rule requires funds to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations (except reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions) subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit, certain derivatives risk management program and reporting requirements. Generally, these requirements apply unless a fund qualifies as a “limited derivatives user,” as defined in the final rule. Under the final rule, when a fund trades reverse re-purchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the fund’s asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions aggregated with other indebtedness do not need to be included in the calculation of whether a fund is a limited derivatives user, but for funds subject to the VaR testing, reverse re-purchase agreements and similar financing transactions must be included for purposes of such testing whether treated as derivatives transactions or not. The SEC also provided guidance in connection with the new rule regarding use of securities lending collateral that may limit a fund’s securities lending activities. Compliance with these new requirements will be required after an eighteen-month transition period. Following the compliance date, these requirements may limit the ability of a fund to use derivatives and reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements may increase the cost of a fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.

Participation in the options or futures markets, as well as the use of various swap instruments and forward contracts, involves investment risks and transaction costs to which the Fund would not be subject absent the use of these strategies. Risks inherent in the use of options, futures contracts, options on futures contracts, forwards and swaps include: (i) imperfect correlation between the price of options and futures contracts and options thereon and movements in the prices of the securities being hedged; (ii) the fact that skills needed to use these strategies are different from those needed to select non-derivative portfolio securities; (iii) the potential absence of a liquid secondary market for any particular instrument at any time; (iv) the possible need to defer closing out certain positions to avoid adverse tax consequences; (v) for swaps, additional credit risk and the risk of counterparty default and the risk of failing to correctly evaluate the creditworthiness of the company on which the swap is based; and (vi) the possible inability of the Fund to purchase or sell a portfolio security at a time that otherwise would be favorable for it to do so, or the possible need for the Fund to sell the security at a disadvantageous time, due to the requirement that the Fund maintain “cover” or collateral securities in connection with the use of certain derivatives.
The Fund could lose the entire amount it invests in futures. The loss from investing in other derivatives is potentially unlimited. There also is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for futures contracts and options in which the Fund may invest. The Fund limits its investment in futures contracts so that the notional value (meaning the stated contract value) of the futures contracts does not exceed the net assets of the Fund.


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Furthermore, regulatory requirements for the Fund to set aside assets to meet its obligations with respect to derivatives may result in the Fund being unable to purchase or sell securities when it would otherwise be favorable to do so, or in the Fund needing to sell securities at a disadvantageous time. The Fund may also be unable to close out its derivatives positions when desired. Investments in derivatives can cause the Fund to be more volatile and can result in significant losses.
Because the markets for certain derivative instruments (including markets located in foreign countries) are relatively new and still developing, suitable derivatives transactions may not be available in all circumstances. Upon the expiration of a particular contract, the Advisor may wish to retain the Fund’s position in the derivative instrument by entering into a similar contract, but may be unable to do so if the counterparty to the original contract is unwilling to enter into the new contract and no other suitable counterparty can be found. There is no assurance that the Fund will engage in derivatives transactions at any time or from time to time. The Fund’s ability to use derivatives may also be limited by certain regulatory and tax considerations.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments require the clearing and exchange-trading of certain standardized over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC defined as “swaps” and “security-based swaps,” respectively. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing is occurring on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and exchange trading. In a cleared swap, the Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a swap dealer, bank, or other financial institution. The Fund enters into cleared swaps through an executing broker. Such transactions are then submitted for clearing and, if cleared, will be held at regulated futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. When the Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via an FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount may also be required to be paid by the Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts, depending upon changes in the price of the underlying reference asset subject to the swap agreement. At the conclusion of the term of the swap agreement, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.
Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely. There is also a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a swap contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers or central counterparty’s clearing members. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Certain swaps have begun trading on exchanges called swap execution facilities. Exchange-trading is expected to increase liquidity of swaps trading.
In addition, with respect to cleared swaps, the Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable terms as it would be able to negotiate for an uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally impose position limits or additional margin requirements for certain types of swaps in which the Fund may invest. Central counterparties and FCMs generally can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions at any time and can also require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement. Margin requirements for cleared swaps vary on a number of factors, and the margin required under the rules of the clearinghouse and FCM may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap. However, regulators are expected to adopt rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps in the near future, which could change this comparison.
The Fund is also subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the central counterparty would void the trade. Before the Fund can enter into a new trade, market conditions may become less favorable to the Fund.


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Government Regulation of Derivatives. It is possible that government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures and swap agreements, may limit or prevent the Fund from using such instruments as a part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent the Fund from being able to achieve its investment objective. It is impossible to predict fully the effects of legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse.
The futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. The SEC, the CFTC, and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading.
The regulation of swaps and futures transactions in the U.S., the European Union and other jurisdictions is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategies.
Under recently adopted rules and regulations, transactions in some types of swaps (including interest rate swaps and credit default swaps on North American and European indices) are required to be centrally cleared, and additional types of swaps may be required to be centrally cleared in the future. In a transaction involving those swaps (“cleared derivatives”), the Fund’s counterparty is a clearing house, rather than a bank or broker. Since the Fund is not a member of any clearing houses and only clearing members can participate directly in the clearing house, the Fund will hold cleared derivatives through accounts at clearing members. In cleared derivatives transactions, the Fund will make payments (including margin payments) to and receive payments from a clearing house through its accounts at clearing members. Clearing members guarantee performance of their clients’ obligations to the clearing house.
In addition, U.S. regulators, the European Union, and certain other jurisdictions have adopted minimum margin and capital requirements for uncleared OTC derivatives transactions. It is expected that these regulations will have a material impact on the Fund’s use of uncleared derivatives. These rules will impose minimum margin requirements on derivatives transactions between the Fund and its swap counterparties and may increase the amount of margin the Fund is required to provide. They will impose regulatory requirements on the timing of transferring margin, which may accelerate the Fund’s current margin process. They will also effectively require changes to typical derivatives margin documentation. It is expected that the Fund will become subject to variation margin requirements under such rules in 2017 and initial margin requirements under such rules in 2020. Such requirements could increase the amount of margin the Fund needs to provide in connection with uncleared derivatives transactions and, therefore, make such transactions more expensive.
The SEC has also issued a proposed rule under the 1940 Act providing for the regulation of registered investment companies’ use of derivatives and certain related instruments. The ultimate impact, if any, of possible regulation remains unclear, but the proposed rule, if adopted, could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in derivatives transactions and/or increase the costs of such derivatives transactions such that the Fund may be unable to implement its investment strategy. These and other new rules and regulations could, among other things, further restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in, or increase the cost to the Fund of, derivatives transactions, for example, by making some types of derivatives no longer available to the Fund, increasing margin or capital requirements, or otherwise limiting liquidity or increasing transaction costs. The implementation of the clearing requirement has increased the costs of derivatives transactions for the Fund since the Fund has to pay fees to its clearing members and is typically required to post more margin for cleared derivatives than it has historically posted for bilateral derivatives. The costs of derivatives transactions are expected to increase further as clearing members raise their fees to cover the costs of additional capital requirements and other regulatory changes applicable to the clearing members. These regulations are new and evolving, and their potential impact on the Fund and the financial system are not yet known.
Risks of Futures and Options Transactions. Positions in futures contracts and options may be closed out only on an exchange which provides a secondary market therefore. However, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular futures contract or option at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close a futures or options position. In the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Fund may be required to make delivery of the instruments underlying futures contracts it has sold.
The Fund will minimize the risk that it will be unable to close out a futures or options contract by only entering into futures and options for which there appears to be a liquid secondary market.


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The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The Fund does not plan to use futures and options contracts, when available, in this manner. The risk of a futures position may still be large, as traditionally measured, due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit. The Fund, however, intends to utilize futures and options contracts in a manner designed to limit its risk exposure to that which is comparable to what it would have incurred through direct investment in securities. Utilization of futures transactions by the Fund involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to its Underlying Index if the index underlying the futures contracts differs from the Underlying Index. There is also the risk of loss by the Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom the Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option.
Certain financial futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movement during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses, because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses.
Risks of Swap Agreements. Bilateral swap agreements are subject to the risk that the swap counterparty will default on its obligations. If such a default occurs, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction, but such remedies may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor. Some interest rate and credit default swaps are currently subject to central clearing and exchange trading. Although exchange-trading and clearing decreases the counterparty risk involved in bilaterally negotiated contracts and increase market liquidity, exchange-trading and clearing will not make the contracts risk-free.
The use of interest-rate and index swaps is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. These transactions generally do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets or principal.
It is possible that developments in the swaps market, including government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to terminate existing swap agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such agreements.
Where swap agreements are two party contracts that may be subject to contractual restrictions on transferability and termination and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, they may be considered to be illiquid and subject to the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. To the extent that a swap is not liquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. Like most other investments, swap agreements are subject to the risk that the market value of the instrument will change in a way detrimental to the Fund’s interest.
If the Fund uses a swap as a hedge against, or as a substitute for, a portfolio investment, the Fund will be exposed to the risk that the swap will have or will develop imperfect or no correlation with the portfolio investment. This could cause substantial losses for the Fund. While hedging strategies involving swap instruments can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively.
Cybersecurity Risk. In connection with the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund is susceptible to operational, information security, and related risks due to the possibility of cyber-attacks or other incidents. Cyber incidents may result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Cyber-attacks include, but are not limited to, infection by computer viruses or other malicious software code, gaining unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices that are used to service the Fund’s operations through hacking or other means for the purpose of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks (which can make a website unavailable) on the Fund’s website. In addition, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally release confidential or proprietary information stored on the Fund’s systems.


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Cyber-attacks have the potential to interfere with the processing of authorized participant transactions and shareholder transactions on the Exchange. Furthermore, cybersecurity failures or breaches by the Fund's third-party service providers (including, but not limited to, the adviser, distributor, custodian, transfer agent, and financial intermediaries), may cause disruptions and impact the service providers’ and the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business and the Fund to process transactions, inability to calculate the Fund's NAV, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund or its third-party service providers.
The Fund may incur substantial costs to prevent or address cyber incidents in the future. In addition, there is a possibility that certain risks have not been adequately identified or prepared for. Furthermore, the Fund cannot directly control any cybersecurity plans and systems put in place by third party service providers. Cybersecurity risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause the Fund's investment in such securities to lose value.
Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in debt obligations traded in U.S. or foreign markets. Such debt obligations include, among others, bonds, notes, debentures, and variable rate demand notes. In choosing corporate debt securities on behalf of the Fund, the Advisor may consider (i) general economic and financial conditions; and (ii) the specific issuer’s (a) business and management, (b) cash flow, (c) earnings coverage of interest and dividends, (d) ability to operate under adverse economic conditions, (e) fair market value of assets, and (f) other considerations deemed appropriate.
The Fund may invest in debt securities that are rated below investment grade (i.e., “junk bonds”) by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (“NRSROs”) or are unrated securities that the Advisor believes are of comparable quality. Junk bonds are considered speculative with respect to their capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation. While generally providing greater income and opportunity for gain, non-investment grade debt securities are subject to greater risks than higher-rated securities.
Companies that issue junk bonds are often highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. During an economic downturn or recession, highly leveraged issuers of high-yield securities may experience financial stress and may not have sufficient revenues to meet their interest payment obligations. Economic downturns tend to disrupt the market for junk bonds, lowering their values and increasing their price volatility. The risk of issuer default is higher with respect to junk bonds because such issues may be subordinated to other creditors of the issuer.
The credit rating from an NRSRO of a junk bond does not necessarily address its market value risk, and ratings may from time to time change to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. The lower the rating of a junk bond, the more speculative its characteristics.
The Fund may have difficulty selling certain junk bonds because they may have a thin trading market. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular issues and may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain accurate market quotations in valuing these assets. In the event the Fund experiences an unexpected level of net redemptions, the Fund could be forced to sell its junk bonds at an unfavorable price. Prices of junk bonds have been found to be less sensitive to fluctuations in interest rates and more sensitive to adverse economic changes and individual corporate developments than those of higher-rated debt securities.
U.S. Government Obligations. The Fund may invest in U.S. government obligations. Obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, and instrumentalities include bills, notes, and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations representing future interest or principal payments on U.S. Treasury notes or bonds. Stripped securities are sold at a discount to their “face value,” and may exhibit greater price volatility than interest-bearing securities because investors receive no payment until maturity. Obligations of certain agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; others, such as those of the former Student Loan Marketing Association (“SLMA”), are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others, although issued by an instrumentality chartered by the U.S. Government, like the Federal Farm Credit Bureau (“FFCB”), are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. The U.S. Government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. Government- sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so, in which case, if the issuer were to default, the Fund holding securities of such issuer might not be able to recover their investment from the U.S. Government.


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Convertible Securities. The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities include bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks, and other securities that may be converted into a prescribed amount of common stock or other equity securities at a specified price and time. The holder of convertible securities is entitled to receive interest paid or accrued on debt, or dividends paid or accrued on preferred stock, until the security matures or is converted. The value of a convertible security depends on interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure. Convertible securities may be illiquid and may be required to convert at a time and at a price that is unfavorable to the Fund. To the extent that the Fund invests in convertible securities with credit ratings below investment grade, such securities may have a higher likelihood of default, although this may be somewhat offset by the convertibility feature.
Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) are mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, and instrumentalities, or issued by nongovernment entities. Mortgage-related securities represent pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various government agencies such as GNMA and government-related organizations such as FNMA and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”), as well as by nongovernment issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers, and private mortgage insurance companies. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured.
There are a number of important differences among the agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities they issue. Mortgage-related securities issued by GNMA include GNMA Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as “Ginnie Maes”), which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest. That guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. GNMA is a corporation wholly owned by the U.S. Government within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Mortgage-related securities issued by FNMA include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as “Fannie Maes”) and are guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FNMA itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FNMA is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders. Mortgage-related securities issued by FHLMC include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates (also known as “Freddie Macs”) guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FHLMC itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FHLMC is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders.
The actions of the U.S. Treasury are intended to ensure that FNMA and FHLMC maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Treasury initiatives will be successful.
In the basic mortgage pass-through structure, mortgages with similar issuer, term, and coupon characteristics are collected and aggregated into a “pool” consisting of multiple mortgage loans. The pool is assigned a CUSIP number and undivided interests in the pool are traded and sold as pass-through securities. The holder of the security is entitled to a pro rata share of principal and interest payments (including unscheduled prepayments) from the pool of mortgage loans.
An investment in a specific pool of pass-through securities requires an analysis of the specific prepayment risk of mortgages within the covered pool (since mortgagors typically have the option to prepay their loans). The level of prepayments on a pool of mortgage securities is difficult to predict and can impact the subsequent cash flows and value of the mortgage pool. In addition, when trading specific mortgage pools, precise execution, delivery and settlement arrangements must be negotiated for each transaction.


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For the foregoing and other reasons, the Fund may seek to obtain exposure to U.S. agency mortgage pass- through securities primarily through the use of “to-be-announced” or “TBA transactions.” “TBA” refers to a commonly used mechanism for the forward settlement of U.S. agency mortgage pass-through securities, and not to a separate type of mortgage-backed security. Most transactions in mortgage pass-through securities occur through the use of TBA transactions. TBA transactions generally are conducted in accordance with widely-accepted guidelines which establish commonly observed terms and conditions for execution, settlement and delivery. In a TBA transaction, the buyer and seller decide on general trade parameters, such as agency, settlement date, par amount, and price. The actual pools delivered generally are determined two days prior to settlement date.
Default by or bankruptcy of a counterparty to a TBA transaction would expose the Fund to possible loss because of adverse market action, expenses or delays in connection with the purchase or sale of the pools of mortgage pass-through securities specified in the TBA transaction. To minimize this risk, the Fund will enter into TBA transactions only with established counterparties (such as major broker-dealers) and the Advisor will monitor the creditworthiness of such counterparties. In addition, the Fund may accept assignments of TBA transactions from Authorized Participants (as defined below) from time to time. The Fund’s use of “TBA rolls” may cause the Fund to experience higher portfolio turnover, higher transaction costs, and to pay higher capital gain distributions to shareholders (which may be taxable) than other funds.
The Fund intends to invest cash pending settlement of any TBA transactions in money market instruments, repurchase agreements, commercial paper (including asset-backed commercial paper), or other high-quality, liquid short-term instruments, which may include money market funds affiliated with the Advisor or Sub- Advisor.
Other asset-backed securities are structured like MBS, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include items such as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. Government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.
If the Fund purchases a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security at a premium, that portion may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-backed or other asset- backed security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true, since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages and loans underlying the securities are prone to prepayment, thereby shortening the average life of the security and shortening the period of time over which income at the higher rate is received. When interest rates are rising, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the period of time over which income at the lower rate is received. For these and other reasons, a mortgage- backed or other asset-backed security’s average maturity may be shortened or lengthened as a result of interest rate fluctuations and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security's return.
Risks of Mortgage-Related Securities. Investment in MBS poses several risks, including prepayment, market, and credit risk. Prepayment risk reflects the risk that borrowers may prepay their mortgages faster than expected, thereby affecting the investment's average life and perhaps its yield. Whether or not a mortgage loan is prepaid is almost entirely controlled by the borrower. Borrowers are most likely to exercise prepayment options at the time when it is least advantageous to investors, generally prepaying mortgages as interest rates fall, and slowing payments as interest rates rise. Beside the effect of prevailing interest rates, the rate of prepayment and refinancing of mortgages may also be affected by home value appreciation, ease of the refinancing process, and local economic conditions.
Market risk reflects the risk that the price of the security may fluctuate over time. The price of MBS may be particularly sensitive to prevailing interest rates, the length of time the security is expected to be outstanding and the liquidity of the issuer. In a period of unstable interest rates, or under a variety of other circumstances, there may be decreased demand for certain types of MBS, and the Fund invested in such securities wishing to sell them may find it difficult to find a buyer, which may in turn decrease the price at which they may be sold.
Credit risk reflects the risk that the Fund may not receive all or part of its principal because the issuer or credit enhancer has defaulted on its obligations. Obligations issued by U.S. Government-related entities are guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government except to the extent previously described. The performance of private label MBS, issued by private institutions, is based on the financial health of those institutions. With respect to GNMA certificates, although GNMA guarantees timely payment even if homeowners delay or default, tracking the “pass-through” payments may, at times, be difficult.


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Municipal Securities. The Fund may invest in securities issued by states, municipalities, and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities. Municipal securities share the attributes of debt/fixed income securities in general, but are generally issued by states, municipalities, and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities, and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities. The municipal securities which the Fund may purchase include general obligation bonds and limited obligation bonds (or revenue bonds), including industrial development bonds issued pursuant to former federal tax law. General obligation bonds are obligations involving the credit of an issuer possessing taxing power and are payable from such issuer’s general revenues and not from any particular source. Limited obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Tax- exempt industrial development bonds generally are also revenue bonds and thus are not payable from the issuer’s general revenues. The credit and quality of industrial development bonds are usually related to the credit of the corporate user of the facilities. Payment of interest on and repayment of principal of such bonds is the responsibility of the corporate user (and/or any guarantor). In addition, the Fund may invest in lease obligations. Lease obligations may take the form of a lease or an installment purchase contract issued by public authorities to acquire a wide variety of equipment and facilities.
Bank Instruments. The Fund may invest in certificates of deposit (“CDs”), time deposits and bankers’ acceptances from U.S. banks. A bankers’ acceptance is a bill of exchange or time draft drawn on and accepted by a commercial bank. A CD is a negotiable interest-bearing instrument with a specific maturity. CDs are issued by banks and savings and loan institutions in exchange for the deposit of funds and normally can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. A time deposit is a nonnegotiable receipt issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds. Like a CD, it earns a specified rate of interest over a definite period of time; however, it cannot be traded in the secondary market.
Participation Interests. The Fund may purchase participations in corporate loans. Participation interests generally will be acquired from a commercial bank or other financial institution (a “Lender”) or from other holders of a participation interest (a “Participant”). The purchase of a participation interest either from a Lender or a Participant will not result in any direct contractual relationship with the borrowing company (the “Borrower”). The Fund generally will have no right directly to enforce compliance by the Borrower with the terms of the credit agreement. Instead, the Fund will be required to rely on the Lender or the Participant that sold the participation interest, both for the enforcement of the Fund’s rights against the Borrower and for the receipt and processing of payments due to the Fund under the loans. Under the terms of a participation interest, the Fund may be regarded as a member of the Participant, and thus the Fund is subject to the credit risk of both the Borrower and a Participant. Participation interests are generally subject to restrictions on resale. Generally, the Fund considers participation interests to be illiquid and therefore subject to the Fund’s percentage limitations for investments in illiquid securities.
Commercial Instruments. The Fund may invest in commercial interests, including commercial paper and other short-term corporate instruments. Commercial paper consists of short-term promissory notes issued by corporations. Commercial paper may be traded in the secondary market after its issuance.
Variable, Floating or Fixed-to-Floating Rate Instruments. The Fund may invest in securities that have variable or floating interest rates which are readjusted on set dates (such as the last day of the month or calendar quarter) in the case of variable rates or whenever a specified interest rate change occurs in the case of a floating rate instrument. The Fund may also invest in securities that have a fixed-to-floating instruments where there is a fixed dividend rate for an initial term that converts to a floating dividend rate upon the expiration of the initial term. Variable, floating or fixed-to-floating interest rates generally reduce changes in the market price of securities from their original purchase price because, upon readjustment, such rates approximate market rates. Accordingly, as interest rates decrease or increase, the potential for capital appreciation or depreciation is less for variable, floating or fixed-to-floating rate securities than for fixed rate obligations. Many securities with variable or floating interest rates purchased by the Fund are subject to payment of principal and accrued interest (usually within seven days) on the Fund’s demand. The terms of such demand instruments require payment of principal and accrued interest by the issuer, a guarantor, and/or a liquidity provider. The Advisor will monitor the pricing, quality and liquidity of the variable or floating rate securities held by the Fund.


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Zero-Coupon and Pay-in-Kind Securities. The Fund may invest in zero-coupon or pay-in-kind securities. These securities are debt securities that do not make regular cash interest payments. Zero-coupon securities are sold at a deep discount to their face value. Pay-in-kind securities pay interest through the issuance of additional securities. Because zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities do not pay current cash income, the price of these securities can be volatile when interest rates fluctuate. While these securities do not pay current cash income, federal tax law requires the holders of zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities to include in income each year the portion of the original issue discount (or deemed discount) and other non-cash income on such securities accrued during that year. In order to qualify as a “regulated investment company” under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and to avoid certain excise taxes, the Fund may be required to distribute a portion of such discount and income and may be required to dispose of other portfolio securities, which could occur during periods of adverse market prices, in order to generate sufficient cash to meet these distribution requirements.
Delayed Delivery Transactions. The Fund may use delayed delivery transactions as an investment technique. Delayed delivery transactions, also referred to as forward commitments, involve commitments by the Fund to dealers or issuers to acquire or sell securities at a specified future date beyond the customary settlement for such securities. These commitments may fix the payment price and interest rate to be received or paid on the investment. The Fund may purchase securities on a delayed delivery basis to the extent that it can anticipate having available cash on the settlement date. Delayed delivery agreements will not be used as a speculative or leverage technique.
Investment in securities on a delayed delivery basis may increase the Fund’s exposure to market fluctuations and may increase the possibility that the Fund will incur short-term gains subject to federal taxation or short- term losses if the Fund must engage in portfolio transactions in order to honor a delayed delivery commitment. Until the settlement date, the Fund will segregate liquid assets of a dollar value sufficient at all times to make payment for the delayed delivery transactions. Such segregated liquid assets will be marked-to-market daily, and the amount segregated will be increased if necessary to maintain adequate coverage of the delayed delivery commitments.
The delayed delivery securities, which will not begin to accrue interest or dividends until the settlement date, will be recorded as an asset of the Fund and will be subject to the risk of market fluctuation. The purchase price of the delayed delivery securities is a liability of the Fund until settlement. The Fund may enter into buy/sell back transactions (a form of delayed delivery agreement). In a buy/sell back transaction, the Fund enters a trade to sell securities at one price and simultaneously enters a trade to buy the same securities at another price for settlement at a future date.
When-Issued Securities. The Fund may purchase when-issued securities. Purchasing securities on a “when issued” basis means that the date for delivery of and payment for the securities is not fixed at the date of purchase but is set after the securities are issued. The payment obligation and, if applicable, the interest rate that will be received on the securities are fixed at the time the buyer enters into the commitment. The Fund will only make commitments to purchase such securities with the intention of actually acquiring such securities, but the Fund may sell these securities before the settlement date if it is deemed advisable.
Securities purchased on a when-issued basis and the securities held in the Fund’s portfolio are subject to changes in market value based upon the public’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and, if applicable, the changes in the level of interest rates. Therefore, if the Fund is to remain substantially fully invested at the same time that it has purchased securities on a when-issued basis, there will be a possibility that the market value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate to a greater degree. Furthermore, when the time comes for the Fund to meet its obligations under when-issued commitments, the Fund will do so by using then available cash flow, by sale of the segregated liquid assets, by sale of other securities, or although it would not normally expect to do so, by directing the sale of when-issued securities themselves (which may have a market value greater or less than the Fund’s payment obligation).
Investment in securities on a when-issued basis may increase the Fund’s exposure to market fluctuation and may increase the possibility that the Fund will incur short-term gains subject to federal taxation or short-term losses if the Fund must sell another security in order to honor a when-issued commitment. The Fund will employ techniques designed to reduce such risks. If the Fund purchases a when-issued security, the Fund will segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the when-issued commitment. If the market value of such segregated assets declines, additional liquid assets will be segregated on a daily basis so that the market value of the segregated assets will equal the amount of the Fund’s when-issued commitments.


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Rule 144A Securities. The Fund may invest in Rule 144A securities. Rule 144A securities are securities which, while privately placed, are eligible for purchase and resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act. This rule permits certain qualified institutional buyers, such as the Fund, to trade in privately placed securities even though such securities are not registered under the Securities Act. The Sub-Advisor, under supervision of the Board, will consider whether securities purchased under Rule 144A are illiquid and thus subject to the Fund’s restriction on illiquid securities. Determination of whether a Rule 144A security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Sub-Advisor will consider the trading markets for the specific security taking into account the unregistered nature of a Rule 144A security. In addition, the Sub- Advisor could consider the (i) frequency of trades and quotes; (ii) number of dealers and potential purchasers; (iii) dealer undertakings to make a market; and (iv) nature of the security and of market place trades (for example, the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer). The Sub-Advisor will also monitor the liquidity of Rule 144A securities, and if, as a result of changed conditions, the Sub-Advisor determines that a Rule 144A security is no longer liquid, the Sub-Advisor will review the Fund’s holdings of illiquid securities to determine what, if any, action is required to assure that the Fund complies with its restriction on investment of illiquid securities. Investing in Rule 144A securities could increase the amount of the Fund’s investments in illiquid securities if qualified institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RISKS

A discussion of the risks associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the Prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus.

GENERAL

Investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding that the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate in accordance with changes in the financial condition of the issuers of the portfolio securities, the value of securities generally and other factors.
An investment in the Fund should also be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the securities markets may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the portfolio securities and thus in the value of Shares). Securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies, inflation and interest rates, economic expansion or contraction, and global or regional political, economic, and banking crises.

EQUITY SECURITIES

The value of equity securities fluctuates in response to general market and economic conditions (market risk) and in response to the fortunes of individual companies (company risk). Therefore, the value of an investment in the Fund that holds equity securities may decrease. The market as a whole can decline for many reasons, including adverse political or economic developments here or abroad, changes in investor psychology, or heavy institutional selling. Also, certain unanticipated events, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war, and other geopolitical events, can have a dramatic adverse effect on stock markets. Changes in the financial condition of a company or other issuer, changes in specific market, economic, political, and regulatory conditions that affect a particular type of investment or issuer, and changes in general market, economic, political, and regulatory conditions can adversely affect the price of equity securities. These developments and changes can affect a single issuer, issuers within a broad market sector, industry or geographic region, or the market in general.

NON-U.S. AND EMERGING MARKETS SECURITIES

The Fund’s return and NAV may be significantly affected by political or economic conditions and regulatory requirements in a particular country. Non-U.S. markets, economies and political systems may be less stable than U.S. markets, and changes in exchange rates of foreign currencies can affect the value of the Fund’s foreign assets. Non-U.S. laws and accounting standards typically are not as comprehensive as they are in the U.S. and there may be less public information available about foreign companies. Non-U.S. securities markets may be less liquid and have fewer transactions than U.S. securities markets. Additionally, international markets may experience delays and disruptions in securities settlement procedures for the Fund’s portfolio securities. Investments in foreign countries could be affected by potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations and could be subject to extended settlement periods or restrictions affecting the prompt return of capital to the U.S.


17


Non-U.S. debt securities can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions in foreign countries. Less information may be available about foreign companies than about domestic companies, and foreign companies generally may not be subject to the same uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, or to other regulatory practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to domestic companies.
Investing in emerging market debt securities can pose some risks different from, and greater than, risks of investing in U.S. or developed markets equity securities. These risks include: a risk of loss due to political instability; exposure to economic structures that are generally less diverse and mature, and to political systems which may have less stability than those of more developed countries; smaller market capitalization of securities markets, which may suffer periods of relative illiquidity; significant price volatility; restrictions on foreign investment; and possible repatriation of investment income and capital. In addition, foreign investors may be required to register the proceeds of sales; future economic or political crises could lead to price controls, forced mergers, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization, or creation of government monopolies. The currencies of emerging market countries may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar, and devaluation may occur subsequent to investments in these currencies by the Fund. Emerging market securities may be subject to currency transfer restrictions and may experience delays and disruptions in securities settlement procedures for the Fund's portfolio securities. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

TAX RISKS

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in shares of the Fund will be taxed. The tax information in the Prospectus and this Statement is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in shares of the Fund.


CONTINUOUS OFFERING

The method by which Creation Units are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares, and sells such shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.
Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. Firms that incur a prospectus-delivery obligation with respect to shares of the Fund are reminded that under Securities Act Rule 153, a prospectus-delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the Securities Act owed to an exchange member in connection with a sale on the Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the Fund’s prospectus is available at the Exchange upon request. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 is only available with respect to transactions on an exchange.


18



MANAGEMENT

Trustees and Officers. The Board has responsibility for the overall management and operations of the Fund, including general supervision of the duties performed by the Advisor and other service providers. Each Trustee serves until he or she resigns, is removed, dies, retires or becomes incapacitated. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualifies or until his or her death, resignation or removal. Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act are referred to as independent trustees (“Independent Trustees”).
The following table provides information about the Trustees and officers of the Trust. Unless otherwise indicated, the address of all persons below is 116 S. Franklin Street, Rocky Mount, NC 27802.
 
Name and
Date of Birth
 
Position
held with
Funds or Trust
 
Length
of Time
Served
 
Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years
 
Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Trustee
 
Other Directorships
Held by Trustee
During Past 5 Years
 
Independent Trustees
 
Gary DiCenzo
(10/1962)
 
 
Trustee
 
 
Since 05/2021
 
 
Chairman, of Forenzo Wine Co. since June 2010.  Equity Partner with Cognios Capital (financial services company) since April 2015.
 
 
1
 
 
Independent Trustee and Chairman of 360 Fund Trust (a registered investment company) since October 2014; Previously, Independent Chairman of FNEX Ventures (financial services company) from October 2018 to September 2020.
 
 
Thomas R. Galloway
(10/1963)
 
 
Trustee
 
 
Since 03/2016
 
 
Independent Investor since 2012.
 
 
1
 
 
Independent Trustee for Wonderfund Trust and all its series since 2021; Independent Trustee and Chairman of Spinnaker ETF Series for all its series since 2016; and Independent Trustee for Prophecy Alpha Fund I, a closed-end interval fund since 2015; (all registered investment companies).
 
 
Interested Trustee*
 
 
Tad Park*
(11/1985)
 
 
 
 
 
Chairman, Trustee, President  and Principal Executive Officer
 
 
Since 05/2021
 
 
Chief Executive Officer and Founder of Volt Equity, LLC since July 2020.  Formerly, Senior Software Engineer with Sonder Holdings (software company) from July 2017 to March 2020. Formerly, Senior Software Engineer with Globant (software company) from February 2015 to July 2017.
 
 
1
 
 
None
 
*Basis of Interestedness. Mr. Park is an Interested Trustee because of his role as Chief Executive Officer of Volt Equity, LLC, the Advisor to the Fund.

 
Name and
Date of Birth
 
Position held with
Funds or Trust
 
Length
of Time
Served
 
Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years
 
Officers
 
 
James Hong
(05/1985)
 
 
Treasurer, Principal Accounting Officer, and Principal Financial Officer
 
 
Since 05/2021
 
 
Chief Operating Officer and Trading Manager, Volt Equity, LLC since 2020. Formerly, Software Engineer, Tapjoy (mobile advertising company) since from 2018 to 2020. Formerly, Software Engineer, TopTutoring from 2017 to 2018. Formerly, Athletics Director, Chinese Christian Schools from 2007 to 2017.
 
 
Tracie A. Coop
(12/1976)
 
Secretary
 
 
Since 05/2021
 
 
General Counsel, The Nottingham Company since 2019. Formerly, Vice President and Managing Counsel, State Street Bank and Trust Company from 2015 to 2019. Formerly, General Counsel for Santander Asset Management USA, LLC from 2013 to 2015.
 






















19



 
Name and
Date of Birth
 
Position held with
Funds or Trust
 
Length
of Time
Served
 
Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years
 
Ashley H. Lanham
(03/1984)
 
Assistant Treasurer
 
 
Since 05/2021
 
 
Director of Fund Administration, The Nottingham Company since 2008.
 
 
Matthew Baskir
(07/1979)
 
 
Chief Compliance Officer
 
 
Since 09/2021
 
 
Compliance Director, The Nottingham Company, Inc., since 2020. Formerly, Consultant at National Regulatory Services from 2019 to 2020. Formerly, Counsel at Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), Member Supervision from 2016-2019. Formerly Counsel at FINRA, Market Regulation Enforcement from 2014 – 2016.
 

The Board believes that each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes, or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees on the Board lead to the conclusion that the Board possesses the requisite skills and attributes to carry out its oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust. The Board believes that its Trustees’ ability to review, critically evaluate, question, and discuss information provided to them, to interact effectively with the Advisor, other service providers, counsel and independent auditors, and to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of its duties, support this conclusion. The Board also has considered the following experience, qualifications, attributes, and/or skills, among others, of its members, as applicable, in reaching its conclusion: (i) such person’s business and professional experience and accomplishments, including prior experience in the financial services and investment management fields or on other boards; (ii) such person’s ability to work effectively with the other members of the Board; (iii) how the individual’s skills, experiences, and attributes would contribute to an appropriate mix of relevant skills and experience on the Board; (iv) such person’s character and integrity; (v) such person’s willingness to serve and willingness and ability to commit the time necessary to perform the duties of a Trustee; and (vi) as to each Trustee his status as an Independent Trustee.

In addition, the following specific experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills were considered in respect of the listed Trustee.
Mr. Galloway has over twenty years of experience in the investment industry, particularly with respect to high yield, bank loan, and distressed securities. He spent 12 years at Western Asset Management (“WAMCO”), where he served as an analyst and portfolio manager. Prior to joining WAMCO in 2000, Mr. Galloway worked at Merrill Lynch Asset Management, where he analyzed multiple industry sectors. He began his investment career in 1992 at a boutique investment firm, where he specialized in high yield and distressed securities. Mr. Galloway received a BA in History and Public Policy from Duke University and an MBA from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
Mr. DiCenzo served as a Partner (2015-2020) and CEO (2015-2019) of Cognios Capital, where he was responsible for the overall operation and strategic direction of the investment management firm. Prior to joining Cognios Capital, Mr. DiCenzo served as the President & CEO of Chicago based strategic consulting firm IMC Group. He also led Scout Investment Advisors as President of the Scout Mutual Fund complex, the President & CEO of Scout Distributors and as a board director to the adviser from 2003-2010. Over the past 25 years, he has focused on the strategic planning and growth for both institutional and mutual fund investment managers. Mr. DiCenzo received an MBA and a Bachelor’s Degree in Management from Rhode Island College.

Mr. Park has served as the Chief Executive Officer and Founder of Volt Equity LLC (since 2020).  He also serves as the Co-Portfolio Manager for four other ETFs sub-advised by Volt Equity.  Prior to founding Volt Equity, Mr. Park served as Senior Software Engineer for Sonder Holdings (2017 to 2020) and Globant (2015 to 2017).  He received a B.S. in Environmental Economics and Policy Management from the University of California, Berkeley.

The Board has determined that each of the Trustees' careers and background, combined with their interpersonal skills and general understanding of financial and other matters, enable the Trustees to effectively participate in and contribute to the Board's functions and oversight of the Trust.

Leadership Structure and Oversight Responsibilities. Overall responsibility for oversight of the Fund rests with the Board. The Board has engaged the Advisor, to manage the Fund on a day-to-day basis. The Board is responsible for overseeing the Advisor and other service providers in the operations of the Fund in accordance with the provisions of the 1940 Act, applicable provisions of state and other laws, and the Trust’s charter. The Board is currently composed of three members, two of whom are Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board currently conducts regular meetings four times a year. In addition, the Board frequently holds special in-person or telephonic meetings or informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may arise or require action between regular meetings. The Independent Trustees meet regularly outside the presence of management, in executive session or with service providers to the Trust.


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The Board has appointed Tad Park, an Interested Trustee, to serve in the role of Chairman. The Chairman's role is to preside at all meetings of the Board and to act as a liaison with service providers, officers, attorneys, and other Trustees generally between meetings. The Chairman may also perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Board from time to time. The Board has established two standing committees: an Audit Committee and a Governance Committee to assist the Board in the oversight and direction of the business and affairs of the Fund, and from time to time the Board may establish ad-hoc committees or informal working groups to review and address the policies and practices of the Fund with respect to certain specified matters. The Chair of each standing Committee is an Independent Trustee. The role of the Chair of each Committee is to preside at all meetings of the Committee and to act as a liaison with service providers, officers, attorneys and other Trustees between meetings. Each Committee meets regularly to conduct the oversight functions delegated to the Committee by the Board and reports its finding to the Board. The Board and each standing Committee conduct annual assessments of their oversight function and structure. The Board has determined that the Board's leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Board to exercise independent judgment over management and it allocates areas of responsibility among committees of Independent Trustees and the full Board to enhance effective oversight.
With respect to risk oversight, the Board considers risk management issues as part of its general oversight responsibilities throughout the year.  The Board holds four regular board meetings each year during which the Board receives risk management reports and/or assessments from Trust management, the Fund's advisor, administrator, transfer agent, and distributor, and receives an annual report from the Trust's Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”).  The Audit Committee also meets with the Trust's independent registered public accounting firm on an annual basis, to discuss among other things, the internal control structure of the Trust's financial reporting function. When appropriate, the Board may hold special meetings or communicate directly with Trust management, the CCO, the Trust's third-party service providers, legal counsel, or independent public accountants to address matters arising between regular board meeting or needing special attention. In addition, the Board has adopted policies and procedures for the Trust to help detect and prevent and, if necessary, correct violations of federal securities laws.
Audit Committee. All of the Independent Trustees are members of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee oversees the Fund’ accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, reviews the results of the annual audits of the Fund’ financial statements, and interacts with the Fund’ independent auditors on behalf of all the Trustees. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter and meets periodically as necessary. The Audit Committee did not meet during the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021.
Governance Committee. All of the Independent Trustees are members of the Governance Committee. The Governance Committee assists the Board in adopting fund governance practices and meeting certain fund governance standards. The Governance Committee operates pursuant to a Governance Committee Charter and normally meets annually but may also meet as often as necessary to carry out its purpose. The Governance Committee also nominates, selects, and appoints Independent Trustees to fill vacancies on the Board of Trustees and to stand for election at meetings of the shareholders of the Trust. The Governance Committee generally will not consider nominees recommended by shareholders of the Trust. The Governance Committee meets only as necessary and did not meet during the fiscal year ended July 31, 2021.
Beneficial Equity Ownership Information. The table below sets forth as of the date of this SAI, the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Fund, and the aggregate dollar range of equity securities in the Fund complex.
A = None; B = $1-$10,000; C = $10,001-$50,000; D = $50,001-$100,000; and E = over $100,000.


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Name of Trustee
 
Dollar Range of Equity
Securities in the Fund
 
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities
in All Funds Overseen or to be Overseen by
Trustee in Family of Investment Companies
 
Gary DiCenzo
 
 
A
 
A
 
Thomas Galloway
 
 
A
 
 
A
Tad Park
A
A
 
 
 
 

Ownership of Securities of Advisor, Distributor, or Related Entities.  As of the date of this SAI, none of the Independent Trustees and/or their immediate family members own securities of the Advisor, Capital Investment Group, Inc. (the “Distributor”), or any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Advisor or Distributor.
Compensation. Officers of the Trust and Trustees who are interested persons of the Trust or the Advisor will receive no salary or fees from the Trust. Each Independent Trustee receives an annual retainer of $5,000 per year plus an additional meeting fee of $1,625 per series per meeting. This amount may be paid pro rata in the event that the Fund closes during the year. The Trust reimburses each Trustee and officers of the Trust for his or her travel and other expenses relating to attendance at such meetings.
The following table sets forth the compensation estimated to be earned by each Trustee for services to the Fund and the aggregate compensation paid to the Trustees for services to the Fund Complex for the fiscal year ended July 31, 2022. Each of the Trustees serves as a Trustee to all series of the Trust, including the Fund.

 


Name of Trustees
 
 
Aggregate
Compensation
from the Fund
 
 
Pension or
Retirement Benefits
Accrued as Part of
Fund Expenses
 
 

Estimated Annual
Benefits Upon
Retirement
 
 
Total Compensation
from Fund and
Fund Complex Paid
to Trustees
 
 
Independent Trustees
 
 
Gary DiCenzo
 
 
$11,500
 
 
None
 
 
None
 
 
$11,500
 
 
Thomas Galloway
 
 
$11,500
 
 
None
 
 
None
 
 
$11,500
 


Interested Trustees


Tad Park
$0
None
None $0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Control Persons and Principal Holders of Securities. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet publicly offered its shares and, therefore, the officers and Trustees of the Trust collectively owned less than 1% of the then outstanding shares of the Fund.

Shareholders owning 25% or more of outstanding Shares may be in control and be able to affect the outcome of certain matters presented for a vote of Shareholders. Although the Fund does not have information concerning the beneficial ownership of shares held in the names of Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) participants (as defined below), as of the date of this SAI, no DTC participant owned of record 5% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund.
Potential Conflicts of Interest. When a portfolio manager has responsibility for managing more than one account, potential conflicts of interest may arise. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of allocation of resources or of investment opportunities. For instance, the Advisor may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fee it receives from the Fund, or it may receive a performance-based fee on certain accounts. The procedures to address conflicts of interest, if any, are described below.
The portfolio manager’s management of other accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with their management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other.
The other accounts may have the same investment objective as the Fund. Therefore, a potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the identical investment objectives, whereby the portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include the portfolio manager’s knowledge about the size, timing and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby a portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage of the Fund. However, the Advisor has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts it manages are fairly and equitably allocated.


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Investment Advisor.  Volt Equity, LLC, located at 2193 Fillmore St., San Francisco, CA 94115 serves as the investment advisor to the Fund pursuant to an investment advisory agreement between the Trust, on behalf of the Fund and the Advisor. The Advisor commenced operations in October 2020.  The Advisor is principally owned and controlled by Tad Park.  The Advisor is responsible for furnishing the investment program for the Fund and managing the investment and reinvestment of the Fund’ assets on an ongoing basis.
Investment Advisory Agreement. The investment advisory agreement for the Fund is effective for an initial two-year period and will be renewed thereafter from year to year only so long as such renewal and continuance is approved at least annually (i) by the Board of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund and (ii) by vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The investment advisory agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust by vote of the Board of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities upon on sixty (60) calendar days’ written notice, or by the Advisor upon 60 calendar days’ written notice. The investment advisory agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its “assignment,” as such term is defined in the 1940 Act.
Under the investment advisory agreement, the Advisor will not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law or for any loss suffered by the Fund in connection with the performance of such agreement, except a loss resulting from a breach of fiduciary duty with respect to the receipt of compensation for services; or a loss resulting from willful misfeasance, bad faith, or gross negligence on the part of the Advisor in the performance of its duties; or from its reckless disregard of its duties and obligations under the investment advisory agreement.
Management Fees. For its investment advisory services to the Fund, the Advisor will be paid a management fee by the Fund, based on a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets, at an annual rate of 0.85%.

Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Manager; Compensation of the Portfolio Manager.  Tad Park is the portfolio manager of the Fund and is primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio
Information regarding the other accounts managed by the portfolio manager as of August 23, 2021, is set forth below:

 
Portfolio Manager
 
 
Registered Investment
Companies
 
 
Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles
 
 
Other Accounts
 
 
Number of
Accounts
 
 
Total Assets
 
 
Number of
Accounts
 
 
Total Assets
 
 
Number of
Accounts
 
 
Total
Assets
 
 
All Accounts
 
 
Tad Park
 
 
4
 
 
$11.49 m
 
 
0
 
 
$0
 
 
0
 
 
$0
 
 
Accounts with Performance-Based Advisory Fee
 
 
Tad Park
 
 
0
 
 
$0
 
 
0
 
 
$0
 
 
0
 
 
$0
 

Portfolio Manager Compensation Structure Disclosure
Compensation.  Mr. Park is compensated through a salary and equity participation in the Advisor.
As of the date of this SAI, the Portfolio Manager did not beneficially own shares of the Fund.
Administrator. The Trust has entered into a fund accounting and administration agreement with The Nottingham Company (“Administrator”), located at 116 South Franklin Street, Post Office Box 69, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27802-0069. The Administrator performs the following services for the Fund: (i) procures on behalf of the Trust, and coordinates with the custodian and monitors the services it provides to the Fund; (ii) coordinates with and monitors any other third parties furnishing services to the Fund; (iii) provides the Fund with necessary office space, telephones, and other communications facilities and personnel competent to perform administrative and clerical functions for the Fund; (iv) assists or supervises the maintenance by third parties of such books and records of the Fund as may be required by applicable federal or state law; (v) assists in the preparation of all federal, state, and local tax returns and reports of the Fund required by applicable law; (vi) assists in the preparation of and, after approval by the Trust, files and arranges for the distribution of proxy materials and periodic reports to shareholders of the Fund as required by applicable law; (vii) assists in the preparation of and, after approval by the Trust, arranges for the filing of such registration statements and other documents with the SEC and other federal and state regulatory authorities as may be required by applicable law; (viii) reviews and submits to the officers of the Trust for their approval invoices or other requests for payment of Fund expenses and instructs the custodian to issue checks in payment thereof; and (ix) takes such other action with respect to the Fund as may be necessary in the opinion of the Administrator to perform its duties under the agreement. The Administrator will also provide certain accounting and pricing services for the Fund.


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Distributor. Under the Distribution Agreement between the Trust and Capital Investment Group, Inc. (the “Distributor”), the Distributor serves as the principal distributor and underwriter for the Fund. The Distributor is located at 100 E. Six Forks Road, Suite 200, Raleigh, NC 27609. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Fund through the Distributor or its agent only in Creation Units, as described in the applicable Prospectus and below in the Creation and Redemption of Creation Units section of this SAI. Fund shares in amounts less than Creation Units are generally not distributed by the Distributor or its agent. The Distributor or its agent will arrange for the delivery of the applicable Prospectus and, upon request, this SAI to persons purchasing Creation Units and will maintain records of both orders placed with it or its agents and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it or its agents. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”), and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). The Distributor is also licensed as a broker-dealer in all 50 U.S. states, as well as in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia.
The Distribution Agreement for the Fund provides that it may be terminated at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on at least 60 days' prior written notice to the other party following (i) the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees, or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Fund shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as described below), Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) participants and/or investor services organizations. The Advisor, Sub-Advisor, or their Affiliates may, from time to time and from their own resources, pay, defray, or absorb costs relating to distribution, including payments out of their own resources to the Distributor, or to otherwise promote the sale of shares.
The Distributor is paid $6,500 per series of the Trust, per year.
Payments by the Advisor and its Affiliates. The Advisor, and/or its Affiliates (“Advisor Entities”) pay certain broker-dealers, registered investment advisers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to the Fund, other funds or exchange-traded products in general. Advisor Entities make these payments from their own assets and not from the assets of the Fund. Although a portion of Advisor Entities' revenue comes directly or indirectly in part from fees paid by the Fund and other funds, these payments do not increase the price paid by investors for the purchase of shares of, or the cost of owning, the Fund or other funds. Advisor Entities make payments for Intermediaries' participation in activities that are designed to make registered representatives, other professionals, and individual investors more knowledgeable about exchange-traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as participation in marketing activities and presentations, educational training programs, conferences, the development of technology platforms, and reporting systems (“Education Costs”). Advisor Entities also make payments to Intermediaries for certain printing, publishing, and mailing costs associated with the Fund or materials relating to exchange-traded products in general (“Publishing Costs”). In addition, Advisor Entities make payments to Intermediaries that make shares of the Fund and certain other funds available to their clients, develop new products that feature the Fund, or otherwise promote the Fund and other funds. Advisor Entities may also reimburse expenses or make payments from their own assets to Intermediaries or other persons in consideration of services or other activities that the Advisor Entities believe may benefit the Fund's business or facilitate investment in the Fund. Payments of the type described above are sometimes referred to as revenue-sharing payments.
Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your salesperson or other investment professional may also be significant for your salesperson or other investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about which investment options it will recommend or make available to its clients or what services to provide for various products based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments may create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients and these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Fund and other funds over other investments. The same conflicts of interest and financial incentives exist with respect to your salesperson or other investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.


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Any additions, modifications, or deletions to Intermediaries listed above that have occurred since the date noted above are not included in the list. Further, Advisor Entities make Education Costs and Publishing Costs payments to other Intermediaries that are not listed above. Advisor Entities may determine to make such payments based on any number of metrics. For example, Advisor Entities may make payments at year-end or other intervals in a fixed amount, an amount based upon an Intermediary's services at defined levels or an amount based on the Intermediary's net sales of one or more funds in a year or other period, any of which arrangements may include an agreed-upon minimum or maximum payment, or any combination of the foregoing. As of the date of this SAI, the Advisor anticipates that the payments paid by Advisor Entities in connection with the Fund and exchange-traded products in general will be immaterial to Advisor Entities in the aggregate for the next year. Please contact your salesperson or other investment professional for more information regarding any such payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Advisor Entities to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy shares of the Fund.
The Fund may participate in certain market maker incentive programs of a national securities exchange in which an affiliate of the Fund would pay a fee to the exchange used for incentivizing one or more market makers in the securities of the Fund to enhance the liquidity and quality of the secondary market of securities of the Fund. The fee would then be credited by the exchange to one or more market makers that meet or exceed liquidity and market quality standards with respect to the securities of the Fund. Each market maker incentive program is subject to approval from the SEC. Any such fee payments made to an exchange will be made by an affiliate of the Fund solely for the benefit of the Fund and will not be paid from any Fund assets. Certain funds managed by the Advisor may also participate in such programs.


Custodian. Clear Street, LLC, located at 55 Broadway, New York, NY 10006, is the custodian for the Fund. The Custodian is responsible for holding all cash assets and all portfolio securities of the Fund, releasing and delivering such securities as directed by the Fund, maintaining bank accounts in the names of the Fund, receiving for deposit into such accounts payments for shares of the Fund, collecting income and other payments due the Fund with respect to portfolio securities and paying out monies of the Fund.
The Custodian is authorized to deposit securities in securities depositories or to use the services of sub-custodians, including foreign sub-custodians, to the extent permitted by and subject to the regulations of the SEC.
Transfer Agent. Nottingham Shareholder Services, LLC (“Transfer Agent”), located at 116 S. Franklin Street, P.O. Box 4365, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27803-0365, is the transfer agent for the Fund (the “Transfer Agent”) and also serves as the dividend disbursing agent for the Fund.

Counsel. Greenberg Traurig LLP is counsel to the Trust.
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. BBD, LLP, located at 1835 Market Street, 3rd Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. They audit the Fund’s financial statements and perform other related audit services.


BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS

Subject to policies established by the Board, the Advisor is primarily responsible for the execution of the Fund’s portfolio transactions and the allocation of brokerage. The Advisor does not execute transactions through any particular broker or dealer but seeks to obtain the best net results for the Fund, taking into account such factors as price (including the applicable brokerage commission or dealer spread), size of order, difficulty of execution, operational facilities of the firm, and the firm's risk and skill in positioning blocks of securities. While the Advisor generally seeks reasonable trade execution costs, the Fund does not necessarily pay the lowest spread or commission available, and payment of the lowest commission or spread is not necessarily consistent with obtaining the best price and execution in particular transactions. Subject to applicable legal requirements, the Advisor may select brokers based partly upon brokerage or research services provided to the Advisor and its clients, including the Fund. In return for such services, the Advisor may cause the Fund to pay a higher commission than other brokers would charge if the Advisor determines in good faith that the commission is reasonable in relation to the services provided.


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In selecting brokers or dealers to execute portfolio transactions, the Advisor seeks to obtain the best price and most favorable execution for the Fund and may take into account a variety of factors including: (i) the size, nature, and character of the security or instrument being traded and the markets in which it is purchased or sold; (ii) the desired timing of the transaction; (iii) the Advisor 's knowledge of the expected commission rates and spreads currently available; (iv) the activity existing and expected in the market for the particular security or instrument, including any anticipated execution difficulties; (v) the full range of brokerage services provided; (vi) the broker's or dealer's capital; (vii) the quality of research and research services provided; (viii) the reasonableness of the commission, dealer spread, or its equivalent for the specific transaction; and (ix) the Advisor's knowledge of any actual or apparent operational problems of a broker or dealer. Brokers may also be selected because of their ability to handle special or difficult executions, such as may be involved in large block trades, less liquid securities, or other circumstances.
Section 28(e) of the 1934 Act (“Section 28(e)”) permits an investment adviser, under certain circumstances, to cause an account to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in securities that exceeds the amount another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the same transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by that broker or dealer. This includes commissions paid on riskless principal transactions in securities under certain conditions.
From time to time, the Fund may purchase new issues of securities in a fixed price offering. In these situations, the broker may be a member of the selling group that will, in addition to selling securities, provide the Advisor with research services. FINRA has adopted rules expressly permitting these types of arrangements under certain circumstances. Generally, the broker will provide research “credits” in these situations at a rate that is higher than that available for typical secondary market transactions. These arrangements may not fall within the safe harbor of Section 28(e).
OTC issues, including most fixed income securities such as corporate debt and U.S. Government securities, are normally traded on a “net” basis without a stated commission, through dealers acting for their own account and not as brokers. The Fund will primarily engage in transactions with these dealers or deal directly with the issuer unless a better price or execution could be obtained by using a broker. Prices paid to a dealer with respect to both foreign and domestic securities will generally include a “spread,” which is the difference between the prices at which the dealer is willing to purchase and sell the specific security at the time and includes the dealer's normal profit.
Under the 1940 Act, persons affiliated with the Fund and persons who are affiliated with such affiliated persons are prohibited from dealing with the Fund as principal in the purchase and sale of securities unless a permissive order allowing such transactions is obtained from the SEC. Since transactions in the OTC market usually involve transactions with the dealers acting as principal for their own accounts, the Fund will not deal with affiliated persons, including the Advisor and its affiliates, in connection with such transactions. The Fund will not purchase securities during the existence of any underwriting or selling group relating to such securities of which the Advisor, the Advisor, or any affiliated person (as defined in the 1940 Act) thereof is a member except pursuant to procedures adopted by the Board in accordance with Rule 10f-3 under the 1940 Act.
Purchases of money market instruments by the Fund are made from dealers, underwriters, and issuers. The Fund does not currently expect to incur any brokerage commission expense on such transactions because money market instruments are generally traded on a “net” basis with dealers acting as principal for their own accounts without a stated commission. The price of the security, however, usually includes a profit to the dealer.
The Advisor, from time to time, effects trades on behalf of and for the account of the Fund with brokers or dealers that are affiliated with the Advisor in conformity with Rule 17e-1 under the 1940 Act and SEC rules and regulations. Under these provisions, any commissions paid to affiliated brokers or dealers must be reasonable and fair compared to the commissions charged by other brokers or dealers in comparable transactions.
Securities purchased in underwritten offerings include a fixed amount of compensation to the underwriter, generally referred to as the underwriter's concession or discount. When securities are purchased or sold directly from or to an issuer, no commissions or discounts are paid.


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Investment decisions for the Fund and for other investment accounts managed by the Advisor and its Affiliates are made independently of each other in light of differing conditions. A variety of factors will be considered in making investment allocations. These factors include: (i) investment objectives or strategies for particular accounts, including sector, industry, country or region and capitalization weightings; (ii) tax considerations of an account; (iii) risk or investment concentration parameters for an account; (iv) supply or demand for a security at a given price level; (v) size of available investment; (vi) cash availability and liquidity requirements for accounts; (vii) regulatory restrictions; (viii) minimum investment size of an account; (ix) relative size of account; and (x) such other factors as may be approved by the Advisor. Moreover, investments may not be allocated to one client account over another based on any of the following considerations: (i) to favor one client account at the expense of another; (ii) to generate higher fees paid by one client account over another or to produce greater performance compensation to the Advisor; (iii) to develop or enhance a relationship with a client or prospective client; (iv) to compensate a client for past services or benefits rendered to the Advisor or to induce future services or benefits to be rendered to the Advisor; or (v) to manage or equalize investment performance among different client accounts. The Advisor and its Affiliates may deal, trade and invest for their own account in the types of securities in which the Fund may invest.
Initial public offerings of securities may be over-subscribed and subsequently trade at a premium in the secondary market. When the Advisor is given an opportunity to invest in such an initial offering or “new” or “hot” issue, the supply of securities available for client accounts is often less than the amount of securities the accounts would otherwise take. In order to allocate these investments fairly and equitably among client accounts over time, each portfolio manager or a member of his or her respective investment team will indicate to the Advisor’s trading desk their level of interest in a particular offering with respect to eligible clients' accounts for which that team is responsible. Initial public offerings of U.S. equity securities will be identified as eligible for particular client accounts that are managed by portfolio teams who have indicated interest in the offering based on market capitalization of the issuer of the security and the investment mandate of the client account and in the case of international equity securities, the country where the offering is taking place and the investment mandate of the client account. Generally, shares received during the initial public offering will be allocated among participating client accounts within each investment mandate on a pro rata basis. This pro rata allocation may result in the Fund receiving less of a particular security than if pro-rating had not occurred. All allocations of securities will be subject, where relevant, to share minimums established for accounts and compliance constraints. In situations where supply is too limited to be allocated among all accounts for which the investment is eligible, portfolio managers may rotate such investment opportunities among one or more accounts so long as the rotation system provides for fair access for all client accounts over time. Other allocation methodologies that are considered by the Advisor to be fair and equitable to clients may be used as well.
Because different accounts may have differing investment objectives and policies, the Advisor may buy and sell the same securities at the same time for different clients based on the particular investment objective, guidelines and strategies of those accounts. For example, the Advisor may decide that it may be entirely appropriate for a growth fund to sell a security at the same time a value fund is buying that security. To the extent that transactions on behalf of more than one client of the Advisor or its Affiliates during the same period may increase the demand for securities being purchased or the supply of securities being sold, there may be an adverse effect on price. For example, sales of a security by the Advisor on behalf of one or more of its clients may decrease the market price of such security, adversely impacting other Advisor clients that still hold the security. If purchases or sales of securities arise for consideration at or about the same time that would involve the Fund or other clients or funds for which the Advisor or an Affiliate act as investment manager, transactions in such securities will be made, insofar as feasible, for the respective funds and clients in a manner deemed equitable to all.
In certain instances, the Advisor may find it efficient for purposes of seeking to obtain best execution, to aggregate or “bunch” certain contemporaneous purchases or sale orders of its advisory accounts and advisory accounts of affiliates. In general, all contemporaneous trades for client accounts under management by the same portfolio manager or investment team will be bunched in a single order if the trader believes the bunched trade would provide each client with an opportunity to achieve a more favorable execution at a potentially lower execution cost. The costs associated with a bunched order will be shared pro rata among the clients in the bunched order. Generally, if an order for a particular portfolio manager or management team is filled at several different prices through multiple trades, all accounts participating in the order will receive the average price (except in the case of certain international markets where average pricing is not permitted). While in some cases this practice could have a detrimental effect upon the price or value of the security as far as the Fund are concerned, in other cases it could be beneficial to the Fund. Transactions effected by the Advisor or its Affiliates on behalf of more than one of its clients during the same period may increase the demand for securities being purchased or the supply of securities being sold, causing an adverse effect on price. The trader will give the bunched order to the broker-dealer that the trader has identified as being able to provide the best execution of the order. Orders for purchase or sale of securities will be placed within a reasonable amount of time of the order receipt and bunched orders will be kept bunched only long enough to execute the order.


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As of the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet commenced operations and therefore has not yet paid any brokerage commissions.
The Fund’ purchase and sale orders for securities may be combined with those of other investment companies, clients, or accounts that the Advisor or its Affiliates manage or advise and for which they have brokerage placement authority. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities of the Fund and one or more other accounts managed or advised by the Advisor or its Affiliates are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the Fund and the other accounts in a manner deemed equitable to all by the Advisor and its Affiliates. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security as far as the Fund are concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower transaction costs will be beneficial to the Fund. The Advisor and its Affiliates may deal, trade and invest for their own account in the types of securities in which the Fund may invest. Advisor and its Affiliates may, from time to time, affect trades on behalf of and for the account of the Fund with brokers or dealers that are affiliated with the Advisor, in conformity with the 1940 Act and SEC rules and regulations. Under these provisions, any commissions paid to affiliated brokers or dealers must be reasonable and fair compared to the commissions charged by other brokers or dealers in comparable transactions. The Fund will not deal with affiliates in principal transactions unless permitted by applicable SEC rules or regulations, or by SEC exemptive order.
Portfolio Turnover. The Fund may pay transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund's performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TRUST

The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the 1940 Act. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on July 30, 2010 and may consist of multiple separate portfolios or series.
The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares in one or more series or “funds.” The Board has the right to establish additional series in the future, to determine the preferences, voting powers, rights, and privileges thereof and to modify such preferences, voting powers, rights, and privileges without shareholder approval.
Each share issued by the Fund has a pro rata interest in the assets of the Fund. Fund shares have no preemptive, exchange, subscription, or conversion rights and are freely transferable. Each share is entitled to participate equally in dividends and distributions declared by the Board with respect to the Fund, and in the net distributable assets of the Fund on liquidation.
Each share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all Funds of the Trust vote together as a single class except as otherwise required by the 1940 Act, or if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund, and, if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, the shares of that fund will vote separately on such matter.
The Declaration of Trust may, except in limited circumstances, be amended or supplemented by the Trustees without shareholder vote. The holders of Fund shares are required to disclose information on direct or indirect ownership of Fund shares as may be required to comply with various laws applicable to the Fund, and ownership of Fund shares may be disclosed by the Fund if so required by law or regulation.
The Trust is not required and does not intend to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Shareholders owning more than 51% of the outstanding shares of the Trust have the right to call a special meeting to remove one or more Trustees or for any other purpose.
The Trust does not have information concerning the beneficial ownership of Shares held by DTC Participants (as defined below).


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Shareholders may make inquiries by writing to the Trust, c/o the Distributor, Capital Investment Group, Inc., at the address provided herein under “Distributor.”
Book Entry Only System. DTC Acts as Securities Depository for Fund Shares. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC.
DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the NYSE Arca and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).
Beneficial ownership of shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants, and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase and sale of shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements, and other communications to Beneficial Owners is affected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and DTC, DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement, or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Fund distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Fund shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in shares of the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such shares, or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.
DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.
Proxy Voting. The Board has delegated responsibility for decisions regarding proxy voting for securities held by the Fund to the Advisor. The Advisor will vote such proxies in accordance with its proxy policies and procedures, which are included in Appendix A of this SAI. The Board will periodically review the Fund’s proxy voting record.
Information regarding how proxies relating to the Fund’s portfolio securities were voted during the 12-month period ended June 30 will be available: (i) without charge, upon request by calling 1-252-972-9922 or by writing to Volt ETF Trust, 116 South Franklin Street, P.O. Box 69, Rocky Mount, NC 27802; and (ii) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.


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Portfolio Holdings Policy. The Trust has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Trust’s portfolio holdings. The Fund and its service providers may not receive compensation or any other consideration (which includes any agreement to maintain assets in the Fund or in other investment companies or accounts managed by the Advisor or any affiliated person of the Advisor) in connection with the disclosure of portfolio holdings information of the Trust. The Trust’s policy is implemented and overseen by the chief compliance officer of the Fund, subject to the oversight of the Board. Periodic reports regarding these procedures will be provided to the Board. The Board must approve all material amendments to this policy. The Fund’s complete portfolio holdings are publicly disseminated each day the Fund is open for business through financial reporting and news services, including publicly accessible Internet web sites. In addition, a basket composition file, which includes the security names and share quantities to deliver in exchange for Fund shares, together with estimates and actual cash components, is publicly disseminated daily prior to the opening of the NYSE Arca via the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”). The basket represents one Creation Unit of the Fund. The Trust, the Advisor, Sub-Advisor and the Distributor will not disseminate non-public information concerning the Trust.
Codes of Ethics. Pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act, the Board has adopted a Code of Ethics for the Trust and approved Codes of Ethics adopted by the Advisor and the Distributor (collectively the “Codes”). The Codes are intended to ensure that the interests of shareholders and other clients are placed ahead of any personal interest, that no undue personal benefit is obtained from the person’s employment activities and that actual and potential conflicts of interest are avoided.
The Codes apply to the personal investing activities of Trustees and officers of the Trust, the Advisor and the Distributor (“Access Persons”). Rule 17j-1 and the Codes are designed to prevent unlawful practices in connection with the purchase or sale of securities by Access Persons. Under the Codes, Access Persons are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions, but are required to report their personal securities transactions for monitoring purposes. The Codes permit personnel subject to the Codes to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund, subject to certain limitations. In addition, certain Access Persons are required to obtain approval before investing in initial public offerings or private placements. The Codes are on file with the SEC and are available to the public.


CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

General. The Fund issues and sells shares of the Fund only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor or its agent, without a sales load, at a price based on the NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined below), of an order received by the Distributor or its agent in proper form. A Creation Unit is an aggregation of [10,000] Shares for the Fund. On days when the Listing Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to be placed earlier in the day. In its discretion, the Advisor and/or Sub-Advisor reserve the right to increase or decrease the number of the Fund's shares that constitute a Creation Unit. The Board reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make a corresponding change in the number of shares constituting a Creation Unit, in the event that the per share price in the secondary market rises (or declines) to an amount that falls outside the range deemed desirable by the Board.
A “Business Day” with respect to the Fund is any day on which the Exchange on which the Fund is listed for trading is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, each Listing Exchange observes the following holidays, as observed: New Year's Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents' Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.
Fund Deposit. The consideration for purchase of Creation Units of the Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (Deposit Securities) and the Cash Component computed as described below. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit,” which will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to creation requests received in proper form. The Fund Deposit represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund.
The “Cash Component” is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares (per Creation Unit) and the “Deposit Amount,” which is an amount equal to the market value of the Deposit Securities and serves to compensate for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the Deposit Amount. Payment of any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities are the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing the Creation Unit. The Fund generally offers Creation Units partially for cash, but may, in certain circumstances, offer Creation Units solely for cash.


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The Fund makes available through the NSCC on each Business Day prior to the opening of business on the Listing Exchange, the list of names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and the amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Deposit (based on information as of the end of the previous Business Day for the Fund). Such Fund Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, to purchases of Creation Units of shares of a given Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Deposit is made available.
The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities change pursuant to changes in the composition of the Fund's portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Sub-Advisor with a view to the investment objective of the Fund. The composition of the Deposit Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the Fund's portfolio.
The Fund reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security that may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or that may not be eligible for transfer through DTC or the clearing process (as discussed below) or that the Authorized Participant is not able to trade due to a trading restriction. The Fund also reserves the right to permit or require a “cash in lieu” amount in certain circumstances, including circumstances in which (i) the delivery of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant (as described below) would be restricted under applicable securities or other local laws or (ii) the delivery of the Deposit Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Deposit Security by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under applicable securities or other local laws, or in certain other situations.
Cash Purchase Method. Although the Fund does not ordinarily permit partial or full cash purchases of Creation Units of the Fund, when partial or full cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified (Creation Units of the Fund are generally offered partially for cash), they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases thereof. In the case of a partial or full cash purchase, the Authorized Participant must pay the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities it would otherwise be required to provide through an in-kind purchase, plus the same Cash Component required to be paid by an in-kind purchaser.
Role of the Authorized Participant. Creation Units may be purchased only by or through a DTC Participant that has entered into an authorized participant agreement with the Distributor (an “Authorized Participant”). Such Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of such authorized participant agreement and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that such Authorized Participant will make available in advance of each purchase of shares an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component, once the NAV of a Creation Unit is next determined after receipt of the purchase order in proper form, together with the transaction fees described below. An Authorized Participant, acting on behalf of an investor, may require the investor to enter into an agreement with such Authorized Participant with respect to certain matters, including payment of the Cash Component. Investors who are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be a DTC Participant or may not have executed an authorized participant agreement and that orders to purchase Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor's broker through an Authorized Participant. As a result, purchase orders placed through an Authorized Participant may result in additional charges to such investor. The Fund does not expect to enter into an authorized participant agreement with more than a small number of DTC Participants. A list of current Authorized Participants may be obtained from the Distributor. The Distributor has adopted guidelines regarding Authorized Participants' transactions in Creation Units that are made available to all Authorized Participants. These guidelines set forth the processes and standards for Authorized Participants to transact with the Distributor and its agents in connection with creation and redemption transactions. In addition, the Distributor may be appointed as the proxy of the Authorized Participant and may be granted a power of attorney under its authorized participation agreement.
Purchase Orders. To initiate an order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor or its agent an irrevocable order to purchase shares of the Fund, in proper form, generally before 4:00 p.m., Eastern time on any Business Day to receive that day's NAV. The Distributor or its agent will notify the Advisor and the custodian of such order. The custodian will then provide such information to any appropriate sub-custodian. Procedures and requirements governing the delivery of the Fund Deposit are set forth in the procedures handbook for Authorized Participants and may change from time to time. Investors, other than Authorized Participants, are responsible for making arrangements for a creation request to be made through an Authorized Participant. The Distributor or its agent will provide a list of current Authorized Participants upon request. Those placing orders to purchase Creation Units through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor or its agent by the Cutoff Time (as defined below) on such Business Day.


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The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component next determined after acceptance of the purchase order, together with the applicable purchase transaction fees. Any excess funds will be returned following settlement of the issue of the Creation Unit. Those placing orders should ascertain the applicable deadline for cash transfers by contacting the operations department of the broker or depositary institution effectuating the transfer of the Cash Component. This deadline is likely to be significantly earlier than the Cutoff Time of the Fund. Investors should be aware that an Authorized Participant may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in the particular form required by the individual Authorized Participant.
The Authorized Participant is responsible for any and all expenses and costs incurred by the Fund, including any applicable cash amounts, in connection with any purchase order.
Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders. An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable order to purchase shares of the Fund generally before 4:00 p.m., Eastern time on any Business Day in order to receive that day's NAV. Creation Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor or its agent pursuant to procedures set forth in the authorized participant agreement, as described below. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede the ability to reach the Distributor or its agent or an Authorized Participant. The Fund’s deadline specified above for the submission of purchase orders is referred to as the Fund’s “Cutoff Time.” The Distributor or its agent, in their discretion, may permit the submission of such orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant at any time (including on days on which the Exchange is not open for business) via communication through the facilities of the Distributor's or its agent's proprietary website maintained for this purpose. Purchase orders and redemption requests, if accepted by the Fund, will be processed based on the NAV next determined after such acceptance in accordance with the Fund's Cutoff Times as provided in the authorized participant agreement and disclosed in this SAI.
Acceptance of Orders for Creation Units. Subject to the conditions that (i) an irrevocable purchase order has been submitted by the Authorized Participant (either on its own or another investor's behalf) and (ii) arrangements satisfactory to the Fund are in place for payment of the Cash Component and any other cash amounts which may be due, the Fund will accept the order, subject to the Fund's right (and the right of the Distributor and the Sub-Advisor) to reject any order until acceptance, as set forth below.
Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, such Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor or its agent will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.
The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke a creation order transmitted to it by the Distributor or its agent if: (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the identity and number of shares specified, as described above; (iv) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (v) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (vi) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the discretion of the Fund or the Sub-Advisor, have an adverse effect on the Fund or the rights of beneficial owners; or (vii) circumstances outside the control of the Fund, the Distributor or its agent and the Sub-Advisor make it impracticable to process purchase orders. The Distributor or its agent shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such purchaser of its rejection of such order. The Fund, the Custodian, and the Distributor or its agent are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall any of them incur any liability for failure to give such notification.
Issuance of a Creation Unit. Except as provided herein, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the sub-custodian has confirmed to the custodian that the securities included in the Fund Deposit (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant sub-custodian or sub-custodians, the Distributor or its agent, and the Sub-Advisor shall be notified of such delivery and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. Creation Units are generally issued on a “T+2 basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date). The Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2, including a shorter settlement period, if necessary or appropriate under the circumstances and compliant with applicable law. For example, each Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (i.e., the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security) and in certain other circumstances.


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To the extent contemplated by an Authorized Participant's agreement with the Distributor, the Fund will issue Creation Units to such Authorized Participant, notwithstanding the fact that the corresponding Fund Deposits have not been received in part or in whole, in reliance on the undertaking of the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by such Authorized Participant's delivery and maintenance of collateral having a value at least equal to 105% and up to 115%, which percentage the Fund may change at any time, in its sole discretion, of the value of the missing Deposit Securities in accordance with the Fund' then-effective procedures. The Fund may use such cash deposit at any time to buy Deposit Securities for the Fund. The only collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. dollars. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern time on the contractual settlement date. The cash collateral posted by the Authorized Participant may be invested at the risk of the Authorized Participant, and income, if any, on invested cash collateral will be paid to that Authorized Participant. Information concerning the Fund's current procedures for collateralization of missing Deposit Securities is available from the Distributor or its agent. The authorized participant agreement will permit the Fund to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time and will subject the Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the cost to the Fund of purchasing such securities and the cash collateral including, without limitation, liability for related brokerage, borrowings, and other charges.
In certain cases, Authorized Participants may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date and in these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participants that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate beneficial owners. All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility, and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund's determination shall be final and binding.
Costs Associated with Creation Transactions. A standard creation transaction fee is imposed to offset the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The standard creation transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant creates a Creation Unit, and is the same, regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased by the Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day. The Authorized Participant may also be required to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact, and other costs and expenses related to the execution of trades resulting from such transaction. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the Fund. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary to acquire Fund shares may be charged a fee for such services.
The following table sets forth the Fund’s standard creation transaction fees (as described above):

 
Standard Creation
Transaction Fee
 
 
$500 minimum
 


Redemption of Creation Units. Shares of the Fund may be redeemed by Authorized Participants only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Distributor or its agent and only on a Business Day. The Fund will not redeem shares in amounts less than Creation Units. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the secondary market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of shares to constitute a Creation Unit that could be redeemed by an Authorized Participant. Beneficial owners also may sell shares in the secondary market.


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The Fund generally redeems Creation Units partially for cash. Please see the Cash Redemption Method section below and the following discussion summarizing the in-kind method for further information on redeeming Creation Units of the Fund.
The Fund makes available through the NSCC, prior to the opening of business on the Listing Exchange on each Business Day, the designated portfolio of securities (including any portion of such securities for which cash may be substituted) that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day (“Fund Securities”), and an amount of cash (the “Cash Amount,” as described below). Such Fund Securities and the corresponding Cash Amount (each subject to possible amendment or correction) are applicable, in order to effect redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next announced composition of the Fund Securities and Cash Amount is made available. Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities that are applicable to creations of Creation Units. Procedures and requirements governing redemption transactions are set forth in the handbook for Authorized Participants and may change from time to time.
If redemptions are not paid in cash, the redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit generally consist of Fund Securities, plus the Cash Amount, which is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares being redeemed, as next determined after the receipt of a redemption request in proper form, and the value of Fund Securities, less a redemption transaction fee (as described below).
The Fund may, in its sole discretion, substitute a “cash in lieu” amount to replace any Fund Security. The Fund also reserves the right to permit or require a “cash in lieu” amount in certain circumstances, including circumstances in which: (i) the delivery of the Fund Security to the Authorized Participant would be restricted under applicable securities or other local laws; or (ii) the delivery of the Fund Security to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of the Fund Security by the Authorized Participant due to restrictions under applicable securities or other local laws, or in certain other situations. The amount of cash paid out in such cases will be equivalent to the value of the substituted security listed as the Fund Security. If the Fund Securities have a value greater than the NAV of the shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the difference is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder. The Fund generally redeems Creation Units partially for cash.
Cash Redemption Method. Although the Fund does not ordinarily permit partial or full cash redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund, when partial or full cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified (Creation Units of the Fund are generally redeemed partially for cash), they will be affected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions thereof. In the case of partial or full cash redemption, the Authorized Participant receives the cash equivalent of the Fund Securities it would otherwise receive through an in-kind redemption, plus the same Cash Amount to be paid to an in-kind redeemer.
Costs Associated with Redemption Transactions. A redemption transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other transaction costs that may be incurred by the Fund. The standard redemption transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant redeems a Creation Unit and is the same regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed by an Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day. The Authorized Participant may also be required to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact, and other costs and expenses related to the execution of trades resulting from such transaction. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account on their order. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary to dispose of Fund shares may be charged a fee for such services.
The following table sets forth the Fund’ standard redemption transaction fees (as described above):

 
Standard Redemption
Transaction Fee
 
 
$500 minimum
 

Placement of Redemption Orders. Redemption requests for Creation Units of the Fund must be submitted to the Distributor by or through an Authorized Participant. An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable request to redeem shares of the Fund generally before 4:00 p.m., Eastern time on any Business Day in order to receive that day's NAV. In the case of custom orders, the order must be received by the transfer agent no later than 3:00 p.m. Eastern time. On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to redeem Creation Units to be placed earlier that day.  Investors, other than Authorized Participants, are responsible for making arrangements for a redemption request to be made through an Authorized Participant. The Distributor or its agent will provide a list of current Authorized Participants upon request.


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The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption in the form required by the Fund to the Distributor or its agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the authorized participant agreement. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed an authorized participant agreement and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor's broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed an authorized participant agreement. At any time, only a limited number of broker-dealers will have an authorized participant agreement in effect. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of the shares to the Fund' transfer agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers, or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.
A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if: (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Fund's transfer agent the Creation Unit redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the Exchange closing time on any Business Day; (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Fund is received by the Distributor or its agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified above; and (iii) all other procedures set forth in the authorized participant agreement are properly followed. If the transfer agent does not receive the investor's shares through DTC's facilities by 10:00 a.m., Eastern time on the Business Day next following the day that the redemption request is received, the redemption request shall be rejected. Investors should be aware that the deadline for such transfers of shares through the DTC system may be significantly earlier than the close of business on the Exchange. Those making redemption requests should ascertain the deadline applicable to transfers of shares through the DTC system by contacting the operations department of the broker or depositary institution effecting the transfer of the shares.
Upon receiving a redemption request, the Distributor or its agent shall notify the Fund and the Fund's transfer agent of such redemption request. The tender of an investor's shares for redemption and the distribution of the securities and/or cash included in the redemption payment made in respect of Creation Units redeemed will be made through DTC and the relevant Authorized Participant to the Beneficial Owner thereof as recorded on the book-entry system of DTC or the DTC Participant through which such investor holds, as the case may be, or by such other means specified by the Authorized Participant submitting the redemption request.
A redeeming Authorized Participant, whether on its own account or acting on behalf of a Beneficial Owner, must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the portfolio securities are customarily traded, to which account such portfolio securities will be delivered.
Deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund generally will be made within two Business Days (i.e., “T+2”). The Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions on a basis other than T+2, including a shorter settlement period, if necessary or appropriate under the circumstances and compliant with applicable law. For example, the Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions on a basis other than T+2 to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules (as discussed in the Regular Holidays section of this SAI), to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and dividend ex-dates (i.e., the last date the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security sold) and in certain other circumstances. The Regular Holidays section of this SAI hereto identifies the instances, if any, where more than seven days would be needed to deliver redemption proceeds. Pursuant to an order of the SEC, the Fund will make delivery of redemption proceeds within the number of days stated in the Regular Holidays section of this SAI, up to a maximum of 14 days.
If neither the Authorized Participant nor the Beneficial Owner on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of Fund Securities in the applicable non-U.S. jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the Fund may in its discretion exercise its option to redeem such shares in cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash. In such case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of its shares based on the NAV of the Fund next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee and additional charges specified above to offset the Fund's brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). Redemptions of shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund cannot lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or cannot do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws.


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Although the Fund does not ordinarily permit cash redemptions of Creation Units (except that, as noted above, Creation Units of the Fund generally will be redeemed partially for cash), in the event that cash redemptions are permitted or required by the Fund, proceeds will be paid to the Authorized Participant redeeming shares as soon as practicable after the date of redemption (within seven calendar days thereafter, except for the instances listed in the section Regular Holidays below, in which more than seven calendar days would be needed).
To the extent contemplated by an Authorized Participant's agreement with the Distributor or its agent, in the event an Authorized Participant has submitted a redemption request in proper form but is unable to transfer all or part of the Creation Unit to be redeemed to the Fund, at or prior to 10:00 a.m., Eastern time on the Exchange business day after the date of submission of such redemption request, the Distributor or its agent will accept the redemption request in reliance on the undertaking by the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing shares as soon as possible. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant's delivery and maintenance of collateral consisting of cash, in U.S. dollars in immediately available funds, having a value at least equal to 105% and up to 115%, which percentage the Fund may change at any time, in its sole discretion, of the value of the missing shares. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 10:00 a.m., Eastern time on the day after the date of submission of such redemption request and shall be held by the Custodian and marked-to-market daily. The fees of the Custodian in respect of the delivery, maintenance, and redelivery of the cash collateral shall be payable by the Authorized Participant. The cash collateral posted by the Authorized Participant may be invested at the risk of the Authorized Participant, and income, if any, on invested cash collateral will be paid to that Authorized Participant. The authorized participant agreement permits the Fund to acquire shares of the Fund at any time and subjects the Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the aggregate of the cost to the Fund of purchasing such shares, plus the value of the Cash Amount, and the value of the cash collateral together with liability for related brokerage and other charges.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund: (i) for any period during which the Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the shares of the Fund's portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC.
Taxation on Creations and Redemptions of Creation Units. An Authorized Participant generally will recognize either gain or loss upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units. This gain or loss is calculated by taking the market value of the Creation Units purchased over the Authorized Participant's aggregate basis in the Deposit Securities exchanged therefor. However, the IRS may apply the wash sales rules to determine that any loss realized upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units is not currently deductible. Authorized Participants should consult their own tax advisors.
Current U.S. federal income tax laws dictate that capital gain or loss realized from the redemption of Creation Units will generally create long-term capital gain or loss if the Authorized Participant holds the Creation Units for more than one year, or short-term capital gain or loss if the Creation Units were held for one year or less, if the Creation Units are held as capital assets.
Regular Holidays. For every occurrence of one or more intervening holidays in the applicable foreign market that are not holidays observed in the U.S. equity market, the redemption settlement cycle will be extended by the number of such intervening holidays. In addition to holidays, other unforeseeable closings in a foreign market due to emergencies may also prevent the Trust from delivering securities within normal settlement period.
The securities delivery cycles currently practicable for transferring Portfolio Securities to redeeming investors, coupled with foreign market holiday schedules, will require a delivery process longer than seven calendar days for each such Fund, in certain circumstances. The holidays applicable to the Fund during such periods are listed below, as are instances where more than seven days will be needed to deliver redemption proceeds. Although certain holidays may occur on different dates in subsequent years, the number of days required to deliver redemption proceeds in any given year is not expected to exceed the maximum number of days listed below for the Fund. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays” (e.g., days on which no or limited securities transactions occur, as a result of substantially shortened trading hours), the elimination of existing holidays, or changes in local securities delivery practices, could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.


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For the calendar years 2021 and 2022, the dates of regular holidays affecting the relevant securities markets of the below listed countries are as follows:

 
United States
 
 
2021
 
 
January 1
 
 
April 2
 
 
September 6
 
 
January 18
 
 
May 31
 
 
November 25
 
 
February 15
 
 
July 5
 
 
December 24
 
 
2022
 
 
January 17
 
 
May 30
 
 
November 24
 
 
February 21
 
 
July 4
 
 
December 26
 
 
April 15
 
 
September 5
 
 


TAXES

The Fund intends to qualify for and has elected or intends to elect to be treated as a separate regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended (the “Code”). As a RIC, the Fund will not be subject to U.S. Federal income tax on the portion of its taxable investment income and capital gains that it distributes to its shareholders. To qualify for treatment as a RIC, the Fund must annually distribute at least 90% of its net investment company taxable income (which includes dividends, interest and net short-term capital gains) and meet several other requirements relating to the nature of its income and the diversification of its assets. If the Fund fails to qualify for any taxable year as a RIC, all of its taxable income will be subject to tax at regular corporate income tax rates without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and such distributions generally will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary dividends to the extent of the relevant Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits.
The Fund is treated as a separate corporation for federal income tax purposes. The Fund therefore is considered to be a separate entity in determining its treatment under the rules for RICs described herein and in the Prospectus.
The Fund will be subject to a 4% excise tax on certain undistributed income if it does not distribute to its shareholders in each calendar year at least 98.2% of its ordinary income (taking into account certain deferrals and elections) for the calendar year plus 98.2% of its net capital gains for twelve months ended October 31 of such year. The Fund intends to declare and distribute dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of this 4% excise tax.
As a result of tax requirements, the Trust on behalf of the Fund has the right to reject an order to purchase Shares if the purchaser (or group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of such Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Code, that Fund would have a basis in the Deposit Securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination.
The Fund may make investments that are subject to special federal income tax rules, such as investments in repurchase agreements, money market instruments, convertible securities, and structured notes. Those special tax rules can, among other things, affect the timing of income or gain, the treatment of income as capital or ordinary and the treatment of capital gain or loss as long-term or short-term. The application of these special rules would therefore also affect the character of distributions made by the Fund. The Fund may need to borrow money or dispose of some of its investments earlier than anticipated in order to meet its distribution requirements.


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Certain of the Fund’s investments may be subject to special U.S. federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (i) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (ii) convert lower-taxed long-term capital gain into higher-taxed short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (iii) convert an ordinary loss or a deduction into a capital loss, the deductibility of which is more limited, (iv) adversely affect when a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, (v) adversely alter the intended characterization of certain complex financial transactions (vi) cause the Fund to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, and (vii) produce non-qualifying income for purposes of the income test required to be satisfied by a RIC. The application of these rules could cause the Fund to be subject to U.S. federal income tax or the nondeductible 4% excise tax and, under certain circumstances, could affect the Fund’s status as a RIC. The Fund will monitor its investments and may make certain tax elections in order to mitigate the effect of these provisions.
The Fund may invest a portion of its net assets in below investment grade instruments. Investments in these types of instruments may present special tax issues for the Fund. U.S. federal income tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount (OID) or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless instruments, how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income, and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a bankruptcy or workout context are taxable. These and other issues will be addressed by the Fund to the extent necessary in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income that it does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise tax.
Under Section 988 of the Code, special rules are provided for certain transactions in a foreign currency other than the taxpayer's functional currency (i.e., unless certain special rules apply, currencies other than the U.S. dollar). In general, foreign currency gains or losses from forward contracts, from futures contracts that are not “regulated futures contracts,” and from unlisted options will be treated as ordinary income or loss under Section 988 of the Code. Also, certain foreign exchange gains or losses derived with respect to foreign fixed income securities are also subject to Section 988 treatment. In general, therefore, Section 988 gains or losses will increase or decrease the amount of the Fund’s investment company taxable income available to be distributed to shareholders as ordinary income, rather than increasing or decreasing the amount of the Fund’s net capital gain.
Income received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, or if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other RICs, that Fund may elect to “pass through” to its shareholders the amount of foreign taxes paid or deemed paid by that Fund. If this election is made, a shareholder generally subject to tax will be required to include in gross income (in addition to taxable dividends actually received) its pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund, and may be entitled either to deduct (as an itemized deduction) his or her pro rata share of foreign taxes in computing his taxable income or to use it (subject to limitations) as a foreign tax credit against his or her U.S. federal income tax liability. No deduction for foreign taxes may be claimed by a shareholder who does not itemize deductions. Each shareholder will be notified after the close of the Fund’s taxable year whether the foreign taxes paid by the Fund will “pass-through” for that year. Various other limitations, including a minimum holding period requirement, apply to limit the credit and/or deduction for foreign taxes for purposes of regular federal tax and/or alternative minimum tax.
The Fund may gain commodity exposure through investment in exchange traded funds that are treated as RICs or “qualified publicly traded partnerships” or grantor trusts for U.S. federal income tax purposes. An exchange traded fund that seeks to qualify as a RIC may gain commodity exposure through investment in commodity- linked notes and in subsidiaries that invest in commodity-linked instruments. Although the IRS has issued numerous favorable private letter rulings to certain RICs that gain commodity exposure in this manner, such rulings can be relied on only by the taxpayers to whom they are issued. Moreover, the IRS currently is reconsidering whether and how a RIC should be permitted to gain commodity exposure. Future IRS guidance (or possibly legislation, other regulatory guidance or court decisions) could limit the ability of an exchange traded fund that qualifies as a RIC to gain commodity exposure regardless of whether that exchange traded fund previously received a favorable IRS private letter ruling with respect to such investment activity. Investments by the Fund in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” and grantor trusts that engage in commodity trading must be monitored and limited to enable the Fund to satisfy certain asset diversification and qualifying income tests for qualification as a RIC. Failure to satisfy either test would jeopardize the Fund’s status as a RIC. Loss of such status could materially adversely affect the Fund.


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The Fund or some of the REITs in which the Fund may invest may be permitted to hold residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMIC”s). Under Treasury Regulations not yet issued, but that may apply retroactively, a portion of the Fund’s income from a REIT that is attributable to the REIT’s residual interest in a REMIC (referred to in the Code as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to federal income tax in all events. These regulations are expected to provide that excess inclusion income of a RIC, such as the Fund, will be allocated to shareholders of the RIC in proportion to the dividends received by shareholders, with the same consequences as if shareholders held the related REMIC residual interest directly.
In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions), (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan, or other tax-exempt entity) subject to tax on unrelated business income, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and that otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income, and (iii) in the case of a non-U.S. shareholder, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax.
If at any time during any taxable year a “disqualified organization” (as defined in the Code) is a record holder of a share in a RIC, then the RIC will be subject to a tax equal to that portion of its excess inclusion income for the taxable year that is allocable to the disqualified organization, multiplied by the highest federal income tax rate imposed on corporations. It is not expected that a substantial portion of the Fund’s assets will be residual interests in REMICs. Additionally, the Fund does not intend to invest in REITs in which a substantial portion of the assets will consist of residual interests in REMICs.
Distributions from the Fund's net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, and distributions of income from securities lending, are taxable as ordinary income. Distributions reinvested in additional Shares of the Fund through the means of a dividend reinvestment service will be taxable dividends to Shareholders acquiring such additional Shares to the same extent as if such dividends had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long shareholders have held the Shares.
Dividends declared by the Fund in October, November, or December and paid to shareholders of record of such months during the following January may be treated as having been received by such shareholders in the year the distributions were declared.
Long-term capital gains tax of non-corporate taxpayers are generally taxed at a maximum rate of either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the taxpayer’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. In addition, some ordinary dividends declared and paid by the Fund to non-corporate shareholders may qualify for taxation at the lower reduced tax rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided that holding period and other requirements are met by the Fund and the shareholder. The Fund will report to shareholders annually the amounts of dividends received from ordinary income, the amount of distributions received from capital gains and the portion of dividends which may qualify for the dividends received deduction. In addition, the Fund will report the amount of dividends to non-corporate shareholders eligible for taxation at the lower reduced tax rates applicable to long-term capital gains.
An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates, and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.
The sale, exchange, or redemption of Shares may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. A loss realized on a sale or exchange of Shares of the Fund may be disallowed if other substantially identical Shares are acquired (whether through the automatic reinvestment of dividends or otherwise) within a sixty-one (61) day period beginning thirty (30) days before and ending thirty (30) days after the date on which the Shares are disposed. In such a case, the basis of the Shares acquired must be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss. Any loss upon the sale or exchange of Shares held for six (6) months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends received by the shareholders (including undistributed capital gain included in income). Distribution of ordinary income and capital gains may also be subject to state and local taxes.


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Legislation passed by Congress requires reporting to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also their cost basis. Shareholders should contact their intermediaries with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections with respect to their accounts.
If, for any calendar year, the total distributions made exceed the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will, for federal income tax purposes, be treated as a tax-free return of capital to each shareholder up to the amount of the shareholder's basis in his or her shares, and thereafter as gain from the sale of shares. The amount treated as a tax-free return of capital will reduce the shareholder's adjusted basis in his or her shares, thereby increasing his or her potential gain or reducing his or her potential loss on the subsequent sale of his or her shares.
Distributions of ordinary income paid to shareholders who are nonresident aliens or foreign entities (“Foreign Shareholders”) that are not effectively connected to the conduct of a trade or business within the U.S. will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax unless a reduced rate of withholding or a withholding exemption is provided under applicable treaty law. However, Foreign Shareholders will generally not be subject to U.S. withholding or income tax on gains realized on the sale of Shares or on dividends from capital gains unless (i) such gain or capital gain dividend is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the U.S., or (ii) in the case of a non-corporate shareholder, the shareholder is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale or capital gain dividend and certain other conditions are met. Gains on the sale of Shares and dividends that are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the U.S. will generally be subject to U.S. federal net income taxation at regular income tax rates.
Under an exemption recently made permanent by Congress, the Fund is not required to withhold any amounts with respect to distributions to foreign shareholders that are properly designated by the Fund as “interest-related dividends” or “short-term capital gain dividends,” provided that the income would not be subject to federal income tax if earned directly by the foreign shareholder. However, the Fund may withhold tax on these amounts regardless of the fact that it is not required to do so. Nonresident shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisors concerning the applicability of the U.S. withholding tax.
Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), a Foreign Shareholder is subject to withholding tax in respect of a disposition of a U.S. real property interest and any gain from such disposition is subject to U.S. federal income tax as if such person were a U.S. person. Such gain is sometimes referred to as “FIRPTA gain.” If the Fund is a “U.S. real property holding corporation” and is not domestically controlled, any gain realized on the sale or exchange of Fund shares by a Foreign Shareholder that owns at any time during the five-year period ending on the date of disposition more than 5% of a class of Fund shares would be FIRPTA gain. The Fund will be a “U.S. real property holding corporation” if, in general, 50% or more of the fair market value of its assets consists of U.S. real property interests, including stock of certain U.S. REITs.
The Code provides a look-through rule for distributions of FIRPTA gain by a RIC if all of the following requirements are met: (i) the RIC is classified as a “qualified investment entity” (which includes a RIC if, in general more than 50% of the RIC’s assets consists of interest in REITs and U.S. real property holding corporations); and (ii) you are a Foreign Shareholder that owns more than 5% of the Fund’s shares at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. If these conditions are met, Fund distributions to you to the extent derived from gain from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, may also be treated as FIRPTA gain and therefore subject to U.S. federal income tax, and requiring that you file a nonresident U.S. income tax return. Also, such gain may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a Foreign Shareholder that is a corporation. Even if a Foreign Shareholder does not own more than 5% of the Fund’s shares, Fund distributions that are attributable to gain from the sale or disposition of a U.S. real property interest will be taxable as ordinary dividends subject to withholding at a 30% or lower treaty rate.
Withholding is required (at a 30% rate) with respect to payments of taxable dividends and (effective January 1, 2019) redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to the Fund to enable the applicable withholding agent to determine whether withholding is required.


40


Non-U.S. Shareholders may also be subject to U.S. estate tax with respect to their shares of the Fund.
Some shareholders may be subject to a withholding tax on distributions of ordinary income, capital gains and any cash received on redemption of Creation Units (“backup withholding”). Generally, shareholders subject to backup withholding will be those for whom no certified taxpayer identification number is on file with the Fund or who, to the Fund’s knowledge, have furnished an incorrect number. When establishing an account, an investor must certify under penalty of perjury that such number is correct and that such investor is not otherwise subject to backup withholding.
The foregoing discussion is a summary only and is not intended as a substitute for careful tax planning. Purchasers of Shares should consult their own tax advisors as to the tax consequences of investing in such Shares, including under federal, state, local, and other tax laws. Finally, the foregoing discussion is based on applicable provisions of the Code, regulations, judicial authority, and administrative interpretations in effect on the date hereof. Changes in applicable authority could materially affect the conclusions discussed above, possibly retroactively.
The Fund is required for federal income tax purposes to mark to market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts as of the end of the year as well as those actually realized during the year. Gain or loss from futures and options contracts on broad-based indexes required to be marked to market will be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders. The Fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on futures contracts, options contracts and swaps to the extent of any unrecognized gains on offsetting positions held by the Fund.
In order for the Fund to continue to qualify for federal income tax treatment as a RIC, at least 90% of its gross income for a taxable year must be derived from qualifying income, i.e., dividends, interest, income derived from loans or securities, gains from the sale of securities or of foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to the relevant Fund’s business of investing in securities (including net income derived from an interest in certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships”). It is anticipated that any net gain realized from the closing out of futures or options contracts will be considered gain from the sale of securities or derived with respect to the Fund’s business of investing in securities and therefore will be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement.


DETERMINATION OF NAV

Valuation of Shares. The NAV for the Fund is generally calculated as of the close of regular trading hours on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) (currently 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) on each business day the NYSE is open. Valuation of securities held by the Fund is as follows:
Equity Investments. Equity securities traded on a recognized securities exchange (e.g., NYSE), on separate trading boards of a securities exchange or through a market system that provides contemporaneous transaction pricing information (each, an “Exchange”) are valued using information obtained via independent pricing services, generally the closing price on the Exchange on which the security is primarily listed, or if an Exchange closing price is not available, the last traded price on that Exchange prior to the time as of which the Fund's assets or liabilities are valued. However, under certain circumstances, other means of determining current market value may be used. If an equity security is traded on more than one Exchange, the current market value of the security where it is primarily traded generally will be used. In the event that there are no sales involving an equity security held by the Fund on a day on which the Fund values such security, the prior day's price will be used, unless, in accordance with valuation procedures approved by the Board (the “Valuation Procedures”), the portfolio manager determines in good faith that such prior day's price no longer reflects the fair value of the security, in which case such asset would be treated as a Fair Value Asset (as defined below).
Fixed Income Investments. In accordance with the Valuation Procedures, fixed income securities for which market quotations are readily available are generally valued using such securities' most recent bid prices provided directly from one or more broker-dealers, market makers, or independent third-party pricing services, each of which may use matrix pricing and valuation models, as well as recent market transactions for the same or similar assets to derive values. The amortized cost method of valuation may be used with respect to debt obligations with 60 days or less remaining to maturity unless the portfolio manager determines in good faith that such method does not represent fair value. Loan participation notes are generally valued at the mean of the last available bid prices from one or more brokers or dealers as obtained from independent third-party pricing services. Certain fixed income investments, including asset-backed and mortgage-related securities, may be valued based on valuation models that consider the estimated cash flows of each tranche of the entity, establish a benchmark yield and develop an estimated tranche-specific spread to the benchmark yield based on the unique attributes of the tranche. Fixed income securities for which market quotations are not readily available may be valued by third-party pricing services that make a valuation determination by securing transaction data (e.g., recent representative bids), credit quality information, perceived market movements, news, and other relevant information and by other methods, which may include consideration of yields or prices of securities of comparable quality, coupon, maturity, and type, indications as to values from dealers, and general market conditions.


41


Options, Futures, Swaps and Other Derivatives. Exchange-traded equity options for which market quotations are readily available are valued at the mean of the last bid and ask prices as quoted on the Exchange or the board of trade on which such options are traded. In the event that there is no mean price available for an exchange traded equity option held by the Fund on a day on which the Fund values such option, the last bid (long positions) or ask (short positions) price, if available, will be used as the value of such option. If no such bid or ask price is available on a day on which the Fund values such option, the prior day's price will be used, unless the Fund determines in good faith that such prior day's price no longer reflects the fair value of the option, in which case such option will be treated as a Fair Value Asset (as defined below). Over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives may be valued using a mathematical model which may incorporate a number of market data factors. Financial futures contracts and options thereon, which are traded on exchanges, are valued at their settle price as of the close of such exchanges. Swap agreements and other derivatives are generally valued daily based upon quotations from market makers or by a pricing service in accordance with the Valuation Procedures.
Underlying Funds. Shares of underlying ETFs will be valued at their most recent closing price on an Exchange. Shares of underlying mutual funds will be valued at their NAV.
General Valuation Information. In determining the market value of portfolio investments, the Fund may employ independent third-party pricing services, which may use, without limitation, a matrix or formula method that takes into consideration market indexes, matrices, yield curves, and other specific adjustments. This may result in the securities being valued at a price different from the price that would have been determined had the matrix or formula method not been used. All cash, receivables and current payables are carried on the Fund's books at their face value.
Prices obtained from independent third-party pricing services, broker-dealers or market makers to value the Fund's securities and other assets and liabilities are based on information available at the time the Fund values its assets and liabilities. In the event that a pricing service quotation is revised or updated subsequent to the day on which the Fund valued such security or other asset or liability, the revised pricing service quotation generally will be applied prospectively. Such determination will be made considering pertinent facts and circumstances surrounding the revision.
Certain types of securities, including many fixed income securities, trade infrequently and there may be no current market transactions or recent representative bids for such securities. To the extent that prices for such securities are not reflective of current market transactions or recent representative bids, the Fund will value such securities in good faith in accordance with the Valuation Procedures.
In the event that application of the methods of valuation discussed above result in a price for a security which is deemed not to be representative of the fair market value of such security, the security will be valued by, under the direction of or in accordance with a method specified by the Board as reflecting fair value. All other assets and liabilities (including securities for which market quotations are not readily available) held by the Fund (including restricted securities) are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or by the Advisor (its delegate) pursuant to the Valuation Procedures. Any assets and liabilities which are denominated in a foreign currency are converted into U.S. dollars using prevailing market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more data service providers.
Certain of the securities acquired by the Fund may be traded on foreign exchanges or OTC markets on days on which the Fund’s NAV is not calculated. In such cases, the NAV of the Fund's shares may be significantly affected on days when investors can neither purchase nor redeem shares of the Fund.


42


Fair Value. When market quotations are not readily available or are believed in good faith by the Advisor to be unreliable, the Fund's investments are valued at fair value (“Fair Value Assets”). Fair Value Assets are valued by the Advisor in accordance with the Valuation Procedures. The Advisor may reasonably conclude that a market quotation is not readily available or is unreliable if, among other things, a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source due to its lack of trading, if the Advisor believes in good faith that a market quotation from a broker-dealer or other source is unreliable (e.g., where it varies significantly from a recent trade, or no longer reflects the fair value of the security or other asset or liability subsequent to the most recent market quotation), where the security or other asset or liability is only thinly traded or due to the occurrence of a significant event subsequent to the most recent market quotation. For this purpose, a “significant event” is deemed to occur if the Advisor determines, in its reasonable business judgment, that an event has occurred after the close of trading for an asset or liability but prior to or at the time of pricing the Fund's assets or liabilities, and that the event is likely to cause a material change to the closing market price of the assets or liabilities held by the Fund. Non-U.S. securities whose values are affected by volatility that occurs in U.S. markets for related or highly correlated assets (e.g., American Depositary Receipts, Global Depositary Receipts or ETFs) on a trading day after the close of non-U.S. securities markets may be fair valued. On any day the NYSE is open and a foreign market or the primary exchange on which a foreign asset or liability is traded is closed, such asset or liability will be valued using the prior day's price, provided that the Advisor is not aware of any significant event or other information that would cause such price to no longer reflect the fair value of the asset or liability, in which case such asset or liability would be treated as a Fair Value Asset.
The Advisor will submit its recommendations regarding the valuation and/or valuation methodologies for Fair Value Assets to Board or a committee established for such purposes. The Trust’s Valuation Committee may accept, modify, or reject any recommendations. In addition, the Fund's accounting agent periodically endeavors to confirm the prices it receives from all third-party pricing services, index providers, and broker-dealers, and, with the assistance of the Advisor, to regularly evaluate the values assigned to the securities and other assets and liabilities held by the Fund. The pricing of all Fair Value Assets is subsequently reported to and, where appropriate, ratified by the Board.
When determining the price for a Fair Value Asset, the Trust’s Valuation Committee will seek to determine the price that the Fund might reasonably expect to receive upon the current sale of that asset or liability in an arm's-length transaction on the date on which the assets or liabilities are being valued, and does not seek to determine the price that the Fund might expect to receive for selling the asset, or the cost of extinguishing a liability, at a later time or if it holds the asset or liability to maturity. Fair value determinations will be based upon all available factors that the Trust’s Valuation Committee deems relevant at the time of the determination and may be based on analytical values determined by the Trust using proprietary or third-party valuation models.
Fair value represents a good faith approximation of the value of an asset or liability. When determining the fair value of an asset, one or more of a variety of fair valuation methodologies may be used (depending on certain factors, including the asset type). For example, the asset may be priced on the basis of the original cost of the investment or, alternatively, using proprietary or third-party models (including models that rely upon direct portfolio management pricing inputs and which reflect the significance attributed to the various factors and assumptions being considered). Prices of actual, executed, or historical transactions in the relevant asset and/or liability (or related or comparable assets and/or liabilities) or, where appropriate, an appraisal by a third-party experienced in the valuation of similar assets and/or liabilities, may also be used as a basis for establishing the fair value of an asset or liability. The fair value of one or more assets or liabilities may not, in retrospect, be the price at which those assets or liabilities could have been sold during the period in which the particular fair values were used in determining the Fund's NAV. As a result, the Fund's sale or redemption of its shares at NAV, at a time when a holding or holdings are valued at fair value, may have the effect of diluting or increasing the economic interest of existing shareholders.
The Fund's annual audited financial statements, which are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”), follow the requirements for valuation set forth in Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”), which defines and establishes a framework for measuring fair value under US GAAP and expands financial statement disclosure requirements relating to fair value measurements. Generally, ASC 820 and other accounting rules applicable to funds and various assets in which they invest are evolving. Such changes may adversely affect the Fund. For example, the evolution of rules governing the determination of the fair market value of assets or liabilities to the extent such rules become more stringent would tend to increase the cost and/or reduce the availability of third-party determinations of fair market value. This may in turn increase the costs associated with selling assets or affect their liquidity due to the Fund's inability to obtain a third-party determination of fair market value.


43




DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

General Policies. Dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid on an annual basis for the Fund. Distributions of net realized securities gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Trust may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Trust reserves the right to declare special distributions if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.
Dividends and other distributions on Fund Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the relevant Fund.
Dividend Reinvestment Service. No reinvestment service is provided by the Trust. Broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial Owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require Beneficial Owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables.


FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Because the Fund commenced operations on or following the date of this SAI, there are no financial statements for the Fund.  You may request a copy of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports, once available, at no charge by calling the Fund at 1-800-773-3863.


44




Appendix A – Proxy Voting Procedures

The following proxy voting policies are provided:

(1)
The Advisors’ Proxy Voting and Disclosure Policy, including a detailed description of the Advisors’ specific proxy voting guidelines.



45




VOLT EQUITY LLC PROXY VOTING POLICY

Policies and Procedures

Volt Equity LLC (the “Company”) has the authority to vote proxies with respect of securities in client accounts (“Client Securities”) over which the Company has voting discretion. In such cases, the Company will cast proxy votes in a manner that is consistent with the best interests of the Company’s clients. Where the Company undertakes proxy voting responsibilities on behalf of multiple clients, it shall consider whether it should have different voting policies for some or all of these different clients, depending on the investment strategy and objectives of each client. These proxy voting policies and procedures are designed to deal with the complexities which may arise in cases where the Company’s interests conflict or appear to conflict with the interests of its clients and to provide a copy of proxy voting and these procedures upon client request. The Company will also make available the record of the Company’s votes promptly upon request.
Unless contractually obligated to vote in a certain manner, the Company will reach its voting decisions independently, after appropriate investigation. It does not generally intend to delegate its decision-making or to rely on the recommendations of any third party, although it may take such recommendations into consideration. Where the Company deviates from the guidelines listed below, or depends upon a third party to make the decision, the reasons shall be documented. The Company may consult with such other experts, such as CPA’s, investment bankers, attorneys, etc., as it deems necessary to help reach informed decisions.
The CCO is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of this policy.
The Company generally will monitor proposed corporate actions and proxy issues regarding client securities and may take any of the following actions based on the best interests of its clients: (i) determine how to vote the proxies; (ii) abstain; or (iii) follow the recommendations of an independent proxy voting service in voting the proxies.
In general, the Company will determine how to vote proxies based on reasonable judgment of the vote most likely to produce favorable financial results for its clients. Proxy votes generally will be cast in favor of proposals that maintain or strengthen the shared interests of shareholders. Proxy votes generally will be cast against proposals having the opposite effect. The Company will always consider each side of each proxy issue.

Non-Voting of Proxies

The Company will generally not vote proxies in the following situations:

Where the Company and client have agreed in advance to limit the conditions under which the Company would exercise voting authority;

o
Proxies are received for equity securities where, at the time of receipt, the Company’s position, across all clients that it advises, is less than, or equal to, 1% of the total outstanding voting equity (an “immaterial position”); or
o
Where the Company has determined that refraining is in the best interest of the client, such as when the cost to the client of voting the proxy is greater than the expected benefit of voting (e.g. voting a foreign security that is required to be made in person).

Proxies are received for equity securities where, at the time of receipt, the Company’s clients no longer hold that position.

Management Proposals

Absent good reason to the contrary, the Company will generally give substantial weight to management recommendations regarding voting. This is based on the view that management is usually in the best position to know which corporate actions are in the best interests of common shareholders as a whole.


46


The Company will generally vote for routine matters proposed by issuer management, such as setting a time or place for an annual meeting, changing the name or fiscal year of the company, or voting for directors in favor of the management proposed slate. Other routine matters in which the Company will generally vote along with company management include: appointment of auditors; fees paid to board members; and change in the board structure. The Company will generally vote along with management as long as the proposal does not: i) measurably change the structure, management, control or operations of the company; ii) measurably change the terms of, or fees or expenses associated with, an investment in the company; and (iii) the proposal is consistent with customary industry standards and practices, as well as the laws of the state of incorporation applicable to the company. Routine matters may not necessitate the same level of analysis than non-routine matters.

Non-Routine Matters

Non-routine matters include such things as:

Amendments to management incentive plans;
The authorization of additional common or preferred stock;
Initiation or termination of barriers to takeover or acquisition;
Mergers or acquisitions;
Changes in the state of incorporation;
Corporate reorganizations;
Term limits for board members; and
“Contested” director slates.

In non-routine matters, the Company will attempt to be generally familiar with the questions at issue. Non-routine matters will be voted on a case-by-case basis given the complexity of many of these issues. When determining how to vote non-routine matters the Company shall conduct an issue-specific analysis, giving consideration to the potential effect on the value of a client’s investments, documentation of the analysis shall be maintained in the Company’s proxy voting files.

Processing Proxy Votes

The CCO will be responsible for determining whether each proxy is for a “routine” matter, as described above, and whether the policy and procedures set forth herein actually address the specific issue. For proxies that are not clearly “routine”, the Company, in conjunction with the CCO, will determine how to vote each such proxy by applying these policies and procedures. Upon making a decision, the proxy will be executed and returned for submission to the issuer. The Company’s proxy voting record will be updated at the time the proxy is submitted.
An independent proxy voting advisory and research firm may be appointed as a “Proxy Service” for voting the Company’s proxies after approval by the CCO.

Periodic Testing

The Company shall evaluate compliance by periodically sampling the proxy votes it casts on behalf of its clients by sampling proxy votes that relate to proposals that are non-routine matters and require more issue-specific analysis (e.g., mergers and acquisition transactions, dissolutions, conversions, or consolidations).

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest between the Company or a principal of the Company and the Company’s clients with respect to a proxy issue conceivably may arise, for example, from personal or professional relationships with an issuer or with the directors, candidates for director, or senior executives of an issuer.
Potential conflicts of interest between the Company and its clients may arise when the Company’s relationships with an issuer or with a related third party actually conflict, or appear to conflict, with the best interests of the Company’s clients.
If the issue is specifically addressed in these policies and procedures, the Company will vote in accordance with these policies. In a situation where the issue is not specifically addressed in these policies and procedures and an apparent or actual conflict exists, the Company shall either: i) delegate the voting decision to an independent third party; ii) inform clients of the conflict of interest and obtain advance consent of a majority of such clients for a particular voting decision; or iii) obtain approval of a voting decision from the Company’s CCO, who will be responsible for documenting the rationale for the decision made and voted.


47


In all such cases, the Company will make disclosures to clients of all material conflicts and will keep documentation supporting its voting decisions.
If the CCO determines that a material conflict of interest exists, the following procedures shall be followed:


1.
The Company may disclose the existence and nature of the conflict to the client(s) owning the securities, and seek directions on how to vote the proxies;

2.
The Company may abstain from voting, particularly if there are conflicting client interests (for example, where client accounts hold different client securities in a competitive merger situation); or

3.
The Company may follow the recommendations of an independent proxy voting service in voting the proxies.

Disclosure to Clients

A summary of the Company’s proxy voting policy will be included in the Company’s Disclosure Brochure. The full text of the Company’s proxy voting policy will be provided to clients upon request.

Proxy Advisory Firm

When the Company retains a proxy advisory firm to provide research, voting recommendations or voting execution services, the Company shall conduct reasonable oversight to ensure the proxy advisor’s recommendations are consistent with the Company’s proxy voting policies and in the best interest of the Company’s clients and investors. The level of oversight may vary depending on (1) the scope of the investment adviser’s voting authority, and (2) the type of functions and services that the investment adviser has retained the proxy advisory firm to perform.

Periodic Advisory Firm Testing

The Company shall periodically evaluate the proxy services provided by third party providers which should consider the services, recommendations made by the provider and how the provider voted, as applicable, and consider the steps enumerated below.
When conducting oversight of a proxy advisory firm, the Company should consider taking the following steps:

whether the proxy advisory firm has the capacity and competency to adequately analyze the matters for which the investment adviser is responsible for voting including the adequacy and quality of the proxy advisory firm’s staffing, personnel, and/or technology;
the adequacy of disclosures the proxy advisory firm has provided regarding its methodologies in formulating voting recommendations, such that the Company can understand the factors underlying the proxy advisory firm’s voting recommendations;
the effectiveness of the proxy advisory firm’s policies and procedures for obtaining current and accurate information relevant to matters included in its research and on which it makes voting recommendations;
the Company’s access to the proxy advisory firm’s sources of information and methodologies used in formulating voting recommendations or executing voting instructions;
the nature of any third-party information sources that the proxy advisory firm uses as a basis for its voting recommendations;
whether the proxy advisory firm has adequate policies and procedures to identify, disclose, and address actual and potential conflicts of interest.

Class Action Lawsuits

From time to time, securities held in the accounts of clients will be the subject of class action lawsuits. The Company has no obligation to determine if securities held by the client are subject to a pending or resolved class action lawsuit. It also has no duty to evaluate a client’s eligibility or to submit a claim to participate in the proceeds of a securities class action settlement or verdict. Furthermore, the Company has no obligation or responsibility to initiate litigation to recover damages on behalf of clients who may have been injured because of actions, misconduct, or negligence by corporate management of issuers whose securities are held by clients.


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Where the Company receives written or electronic notice of a class action lawsuit, settlement, or verdict directly relating to a client account, it will forward all notices, proof of claim forms, and other materials, to the client. Electronic mail is acceptable where appropriate if the client has authorized contact in this manner.



 




49


File Nos. 333-171279 and 811-22507

VOLT ETF TRUST
PART C
OTHER INFORMATION

ITEM 28. Exhibits

(a)
Amended Declaration of Trust dated July 8, 2021 (“Trust Instrument”), to Registrant’s registration statement on Form N-1A (“Registration Statement is filed herewith.

(b)
Amended By-Laws dated July 8, 2021are filed herewith.

(c)
Articles III, V, and VI of the Trust Instrument defines the rights of holders of the securities being is filed herewith.

(d)
Investment Advisory Agreement dated August 3, 2021, between the Registrant and Volt Equity LLC, as investment advisor for the Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF, is filed herewith.

(e)
Distribution Agreement dated August 3, 2021, between the Registrant and Capital Investment Group, Inc., as distributor for Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF is filed herewith.

(f)
Not Applicable.

(g)
Custody Agreement dated August 3, 2021, between the Registrant and Clear Street LLC as custodian for Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF is filed herewith.

(h)(1)
Fund Accounting and Administration Agreement dated August 3, 2021, between the Registrant and The Nottingham Company, is filed herewith.

(h)(2)
Dividend Disbursing and Transfer Agent Agreement dated August 3, 2021, between the Registrant and Nottingham Shareholder Services LLC is filed herewith.

(h)(3)
Compliance Services Agreement dated September 29, 2021 between the Registrant and The Nottingham Company is filed herewith.

(i)(1)
Opinion of Counsel is filed herewith.

(j)

(k)
Not Applicable.

(l)
Not Applicable.

(m)
Not Applicable.

(n)
Not Applicable.

(o)
Reserved.

(p)(1)
Code of Ethics for the Registrant is filed herewith.



(p)(2)
Code of Ethics for Volt Equity LLC is filed herewith. 

(q)
Powers of Attorney are incorporated herein by reference to Post-Effective Amendment No. 24 to the Registration Statement filed on June 7, 2021.

101.INS
XBRL Instance Document – the instance document does not appear on the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document

101.SCH
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document

101.CAL
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document

101.DEF
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

101.LAB
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document

101.PRE
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document


ITEM 29.  Persons Controlled by or Under Common Control with the Registrant
No person is controlled by or under common control with the Registrant.
ITEM 30.  Indemnification
Under Delaware law, Section 3817 of the Treatment of Delaware Statutory Trusts empowers Delaware business trusts to indemnify and hold harmless any trustee or beneficial owner or other person from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever, subject to such standards and restrictions as may be set forth in the governing instrument of the business trust.  The Registrant’s Trust Instrument contains the following provisions:
Article VII. Section 2.  Indemnification and Limitation of LiabilityThe Trustees shall not be responsible or liable in any event for any neglect or wrong-doing of any officer, agent, employee, Advisor or Principal Underwriter of the Trust, nor shall any Trustee be responsible for the act or omission of any other Trustee, and, as provided in Section 3 of this Article VII, the Trust out of its assets shall indemnify and hold harmless each and every Trustee and officer of the Trust from and against any and all claims, demands, costs, losses, expenses, and damages whatsoever arising out of or related to such Trustee's performance of his or her duties as a Trustee or officer of the Trust; provided that nothing herein contained shall indemnify, hold harmless or protect any Trustee or officer from or against any liability to the Trust or any Shareholder to which he or she would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

Every note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking and every other act or thing whatsoever issued, executed or done by or on behalf of the Trust or the Trustees or any of them in connection with the Trust shall be conclusively deemed to have been issued, executed or done only in or with respect to their or his or her capacity as Trustees or Trustee, and such Trustees or Trustee shall not be personally liable thereon.
Article VII. Section 3Indemnification.
(a) Subject to the exceptions and limitations contained in Subsection (b) below:
 (i) every person who is, or has been, a Trustee or an officer, employee or agent of the Trust (including any individual who serves at its request as director, officer, partner, trustee or the like of another organization in which it has any interest as a shareholder, creditor or otherwise) (“Covered Person”) shall be indemnified by the Trust or the appropriate Series to the fullest extent permitted by law against liability and against all expenses reasonably incurred or paid by him in connection with any claim, action, suit or proceeding in which he becomes involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of his being or having been a Covered Person and against amounts paid or incurred by him in the settlement thereof; and

(ii) as used herein, the words “claim,” “action,” “suit,” or “proceeding” shall apply to all claims, actions, suits or proceedings (civil, criminal or other, including appeals), actual or threatened, and the words “liability” and “expenses” shall include, without limitation, attorneys, fees, costs, judgments, amounts paid in settlement, fines, penalties and other liabilities.
(b) No indemnification shall be provided hereunder to a Covered Person:
(i) who shall have been adjudicated by a court or body before which the proceeding was brought (A) to be liable to the Trust or its Shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his office, or (B) not to have acted in good faith in the reasonable belief that his action was in the best interest of the Trust; or
(ii) in the event the matter is not adjudicated by a court or other appropriate body, unless there has been a determination that such Covered Person did not engage in willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his office: by at least a majority of those Trustees who are neither Interested Persons of the Trust nor are parties to the matter based upon a review of readily available facts (as opposed to a full trial-type inquiry); or by written opinion of independent legal counsel based upon a review of readily available facts (as opposed to a full trial-type inquiry).
(c) The rights of indemnification herein provided may be insured against by policies maintained by the Trust, shall be severable, shall not be exclusive of or affect any other rights to which any Covered Person may now or hereafter be entitled, and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of a Covered Person.

(d) To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, expenses incurred in defending any proceeding may be advanced by the Trust before the disposition of the proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such Covered Person that such amount will be paid over by him to the Trust or applicable Series if it is ultimately determined that he is not entitled to indemnification under this Section; provided, however, that either a majority of the Trustees who are neither Interested Persons of the Trust nor parties to the matter, or independent legal counsel in a written opinion, shall have determined, based upon a review of readily available facts (as opposed to a full trial-type inquiry) that there is reason to believe that such Covered Person will not be disqualified from indemnification under this Section.
(e) Any repeal or modification of this Article VII by the Shareholders, or adoption or modification of any other provision of the Declaration or By-laws inconsistent with this Article, shall be prospective only, to the extent that such repeal, or modification would, if applied retrospectively, adversely affect any limitation on the liability of any Covered Person or indemnification available to any Covered Person with respect to any act or omission which occurred prior to such repeal, modification or adoption.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), may be permitted to trustees, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant by the Registrant pursuant to the Trust Instrument or otherwise, the Registrant is aware that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and, therefore, is unenforceable.  In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by trustees, officers or controlling persons of the Registrant in connection with the successful defense of any act, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such trustees, officers or controlling persons in connection with the shares being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issues.

ITEM 31. Business and other Connections of the Investment Advisor
(a) Volt Equity LLC serves as the investment advisor to the Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF.  The information required by this item 31 regarding any other business, profession, vocation, or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by Volt Equity LLC and its directors, officers, or partners during the past two years is included in Volt Equity LLC’s Form ADV filed with the SEC (File No. 801-119673) and is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 32. Principal Underwriter
(a) Capital Investment Group, Inc. is underwriter and distributor for the Registrant, the Starboard Investment Trust, the Aspiration Funds, and the Spinnaker ETF Series.
(b) Set forth below is information concerning each director and officer of the Distributor.  The principal business address of the Distributor and each such person is 100 E Six Forks Road, Suite 200, Raleigh, NC 27609.
(1)
(2)
(3)

Name

Position and Offices
With Underwriter
Positions and Offices
with Registrant
Richard K. Bryant
CEO
None
Benjamin T. Brookers
President
None
Con T. McDonald
Assistant Vice-President
None
W. Harold Eddins, Jr.
Assistant Vice-President
None
Kurt A. Dressler
Assistant Vice-President
None
Ronald L. King
Chief Compliance Officer
None
(c)
Not applicable.
ITEM 33. Location of Accounts and Records
(a) The Registrant maintains accounts, books and other documents required by Section 31(a) of the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder (“Records”) at the offices of The Nottingham Company, 116 S. Franklin Street, Rocky Mount, NC 27804.
(b) Clear Street, LLC maintains all Records relating to its service as custodian at its offices located at 55 Broadway, New York, New York 10006.
(c) The Nottingham Company maintains all Records related to its services as administrator and fund accountant to the Registrant at its offices located at 116 South Franklin Street, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27804.
(d) Nottingham Shareholder Services, LLC maintains all Records related to its services as dividend disbursing and transfer agent to the Registrant at 116 South Franklin Street, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27804.
(e) Volt Equity LLC maintains all Records related to its services as investment advisor for the Volt Crypto Industry Revolution and Tech ETF at its offices located at 2193 Fillmore Street, San Francisco, CA  94115.
ITEM 34. Management Services
None.


ITEM 35. Undertakings
None.

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for effectiveness of this Registration Statement under Rule 485(b) under the Securities Act and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereto duly authorized, in the City of Rocky Mount, State of North Carolina on this 1st day of October 2021.

 
VOLT ETF TRUST
     
 
By:
/s/ Tad Park*
   
Tad Park
   
Trustee, Chairman, President, and Principal Executive Officer


Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed below by the following person in the capacities and on the date indicated.


Signature
Title
Date
     
/s/ Thomas Galloway*
Trustee
October 1, 2021
Thomas Galloway
   
     
/s/ Gary DiCenzo*
Trustee
October 1, 2021
Gary DiCenzo
   
     
/s/ Tad Park*
Tad Park
Trustee, Chairman, President, and Principal Executive Officer
October 1, 2021
     
     
/s/ James Hong*
James Hong
Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer, and Principal Accounting Officer
October 1, 2021
     
     

/s/ Tracie A. Coop
By: Tracie A. Coop
* Attorney-in-Fact pursuant to Powers of Attorney dated May 24, 2021, filed on June 7, 2021 to Post-Effective Amendment No. 24.

EXHIBIT INDEX

(a)
(b)
(d)
(e)
(g)
(h)(1)
(h)(2)
(h)(3)
(i)(1)
(j)
Consent of Independent Accountant
(p)(1)
(p)(2)




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Exhibit (b)

BY-LAWS
VOLT ETF TRUST
A Delaware Business Trust
(Effective July 8, 2021)

ARTICLE I.

OFFICES
Section 1.01.  PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICE.  The Board of Trustees shall fix and, from time to time, may change the location of the principal executive office of the Trust at any place within or outside the State of Delaware.
Section 1.02.  OTHER OFFICES.  The Board of Trustees may at any time establish branch or subordinate offices at any place or places where the Trust intends to do business.
ARTICLE II.

MEETINGS OF SHAREHOLDERS
Section 2.01.  PLACE OF MEETINGS.  Meetings of Shareholders shall be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware designated by the Board of Trustees.  In the absence of any such designation, shareholders’ meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the Trust.
Section 2.02.  CALL OF MEETING.  A meeting of the Shareholders of the Trust or any Series may be called at any time for any purpose by the Board of Trustees, by the Chairman of the Board or by the President.  Special meetings of the Shareholders of the Trust or any Series shall be called by the Board of Trustees, Chairman, or President upon the written request of Shareholders owning at least one-third of the outstanding Shares entitled to vote.
Section 2.03.  NOTICE OF SHAREHOLDERS’ MEETING.  All notices of meetings of shareholders shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with Section 4 of this Article II not less than seven (7) nor more than ninety (90) days before the date of the meeting.  The notice shall specify (i) the place, date and hour of the meeting, and (ii) the general nature of the business to be transacted.  The notice of any meeting at which Trustees are to be elected also shall include the name of any nominee or nominees whom at the time of the notice are intended to be presented for election.
If action is proposed to be taken at any meeting for approval of (i) a contract or transaction in which a Trustee has a direct or indirect financial interest, (ii) an amendment of the Declaration of Trust, (iii) a reorganization of the Trust, or (iv) a voluntary dissolution of the Trust, the notice shall also state the general nature of that proposal.
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Section 2.04.  MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE.  Notice of any meeting of shareholders shall be given either personally or by first-class mail or telegraphic or other written communication, charges prepaid, addressed to the shareholder at the address of that shareholder appearing on the books of the Trust or its transfer agent or given by the shareholder to the Trust for the purpose of notice.  If no such address appears on the Trust’s books or is given, notice shall be deemed to have been given if sent to that shareholder by first-class mail or telegraphic or other written communication to the Trust’s principal executive office, or if published at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where that office is located.  Notice shall be deemed to have been given at the time when delivered personally or deposited in the mail or sent by telegram or other means of written communication.
If any notice addressed to a shareholder at the address of that shareholder appearing on the books of the Trust is returned to the Trust by the United States Postal Service marked to indicate that the Postal Service is unable to deliver the notice to the shareholder at that address, all future notices or reports shall be deemed to have been duly given without further mailing if these shall be available to the shareholder on written demand of the shareholder at the principal executive office of the Trust for a period of one year from the date of the giving of the notice.
An affidavit of the mailing or other means of giving any notice of any shareholders’ meeting shall be executed by the secretary, assistant secretary or any transfer agent of the Trust giving the notice and shall be filed and maintained in the minute book of the Trust.
Section 2.05.  ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE.  Any shareholders’ meeting, whether or not a quorum is present, may be adjourned from time to time by the vote of the majority of the shares represented at that meeting, either in person or by proxy.
When any shareholders’ meeting is adjourned to another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting at which the adjournment is taken, unless a new record date of the adjourned meeting is fixed or unless the adjournment is for more than one hundred eighty (180) days from the date set for the original meeting, in which case the Board of Trustees shall set a new record date.  Notice of any such adjourned meeting shall be given to each shareholder of record entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting in accordance with the provisions of Sections 3 and 4 of this Article II.  At any adjourned meeting, the Trust may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting.
Section 2.06.  VOTING.  The shareholders entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of the Declaration of Trust, as in effect at such time.  The shareholders’ vote may be by voice vote or by ballot, provided, however, that any election for trustees must be by ballot if demanded by any shareholder before the voting has begun on any matter other than elections of Trustees, any shareholder may vote part of the shares in favor of the proposal and refrain from voting the remaining shares or vote them against the proposal, but if the shareholder fails to specify the number of shares which the shareholder is voting affirmatively, it will be conclusively presumed that the shareholder’s approving vote is with respect to the total shares that the shareholder is entitled to vote on such proposal.
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Section 2.07.  WAIVER OF NOTICE BY CONSENT OF ABSENT SHAREHOLDERS.  The transactions of the meeting of shareholders, however called and noticed and wherever held, shall be as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice if a quorum be present either in person or by proxy and if either before or after the meeting, each person entitled to vote who was not present in person or by proxy signs a written waiver of notice or a consent to a holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes.  The waiver of notice or consent need not specify either the business to be transacted or the purpose of any shareholders’ meeting.
Attendance by a person at a meeting shall also constitute a waiver of notice of that meeting, except when the person objects at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters not included in the notice of the meeting if that objection is expressly made at the beginning of the meeting.
Section 2.08.  SHAREHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING.  Any action which may be taken at any meeting of shareholders may be taken without a meeting and without prior notice if a consent in writing setting forth the action so taken is signed by the holders of outstanding shares having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take that action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on that action were present and voted.  All such consents shall be filed with the Secretary of the Trust and shall be maintained in the Trust’s records.  Any shareholder giving a written consent or the shareholder’s proxy holders or a transferee of the shares or a personal representative of the shareholder or their respective proxy-holders may revoke the consent by a writing received by the Secretary of the Trust before written consents of the number of shares required to authorize the proposed action have been filed with the Secretary.
If the consents of all shareholders entitled to vote have not been solicited in writing and if the unanimous written consent of all such shareholders shall not have been received, the Secretary shall give prompt notice of the action approved by the shareholders without a meeting.  This notice shall be given in the manner specified in Section 4 of this Article II.  In the case of approval of (i) contracts or transactions in which a trustee has a direct or indirect financial interest, (ii) indemnification of agents of the Trust, and (iii) a reorganization of the Trust, the notice shall be given at least ten (10) days before the consummation of any action authorized by that approval.
Section 2.09.  RECORD DATE FOR SHAREHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING AND GIVING CONSENTS.  For purposes of determining the shareholders entitled to notice of any meeting or to vote or entitled to give consent to action without a meeting, the Board of Trustees may fix in advance a record date, which shall not be more than one hundred and eighty (180) days nor less than seven (7) days before the date of any such meeting as provided in the Declaration of Trust.
If the Board of Trustees does not so fix a record date:
(a)
The record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of shareholders shall be at the close of business on the business day next preceding the day on which notice is given or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the business day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.
3


(b)
The record date for determining shareholders entitled to give consent to action in writing without a meeting, (i) when no prior action by the Board of Trustees has been taken, shall be the day on which the first written consent is given, or (ii) when prior action of the Board of Trustees has been taken, shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Trustees adopt the resolution relating to that action or the one hundred eightieth (180th) day before the date of such other action, whichever is later.
Section 2.10.  PROXIES.  Every person entitled to vote for trustees or on any other matter shall have the right to do so either in person or by one or more agents authorized by a written proxy signed by the person and filed with the Secretary of the Trust.  A proxy shall be deemed signed if the shareholder’s name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the shareholder or the shareholder’s attorney-in-fact.  A validly executed proxy that does not state that it is irrevocable shall continue in full force and effect unless (i) revoked by the person executing it before the vote pursuant to that proxy by a writing delivered to the Trust stating that the proxy is revoked or by a subsequent proxy executed by or attendance at the meeting and voting in person by the person executing that proxy; or (ii) written notice of the death or incapacity of the maker of that proxy is received by the Trust before the vote pursuant to that proxy is counted; provided however, that no proxy shall be valid after the expiration of eleven (11) months from the date of the proxy unless otherwise provided in the proxy.  The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
Section 2.11.  INSPECTORS OF ELECTION.  Before any meeting of shareholders, the Board of Trustees may appoint any persons other than nominees for office to act as inspectors of election at the meeting or its adjournment.  If no inspectors of election are so appointed, the chairman of the meeting may and on the request of any shareholder or a shareholder’s proxy shall, appoint inspectors of election at the meeting.  The number of inspectors shall be either one (1) or three (3).  If inspectors are appointed at a meeting on the request of one or more shareholders or proxies, the holders of a majority of shares or their proxies present at the meeting shall determine whether one (1) or three (3) inspectors are to be appointed.  If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, the chairman of the meeting may and on the request of any shareholder or a shareholder’s proxy, shall appoint a person to fill the vacancy.
These inspectors shall:
(a)
Determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum and the authenticity, validity and effect of proxies;
(b)
Receive votes, ballots or consents;
(c)
Hear and determine all challenges and questions in any way arising in connection with the right to vote;
(d)
Count and tabulate all votes or consents;
(e)
Determine when the polls shall close;
4


(f)
Determine the result; and
(g)
Do any other acts that may be proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all shareholders.
ARTICLE III.

TRUSTEES
Section 3.01.  POWERS.  Subject to the applicable provisions of the Agreement and Declaration of Trust and these By-Laws relating to action required to be approved by the shareholders or by the outstanding shares, the business and affairs of the Trust shall be managed and all powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board of Trustees.
Section 3.02.  NUMBER AND QUALIFICATION OF TRUSTEES.  The exact number of Trustees shall be set as provided in the Agreement and Declaration of Trust.
Section 3.03.  VACANCIES.  Vacancies in the Board of Trustees may be filled by a majority of the remaining trustees, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining Trustee, unless the Board of Trustees calls a meeting of shareholders for the purposes of electing trustees.  In the event that at any time less than a two-thirds of the Trustees holding office at that time were so elected by the holders of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust, the Board of Trustees shall forthwith cause to be held as promptly as possible, and in any event within sixty (60) days, a meeting of such holders for the purpose of electing trustees to fill any existing vacancies in the Board of Trustees, unless such period is extended by order of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
Notwithstanding the above, the selection and nomination of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust (as that term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”)) shall be, and is, committed to the discretion of such disinterested trustees.
Section 3.04.  PLACE OF MEETINGS AND MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE.  All meetings of the Board of Trustees may be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware that has been designated from time to time by resolution of the Board.  In the absence of such a designation, regular meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the Trust.  Any meeting, regular or special, may be held by conference telephone or similar communication equipment, so long as all trustees participating in the meeting can hear one another and all such trustees shall be deemed to be present in person at the meeting and provided that provisions of the 1940 Act do not otherwise require an in-person meeting.
Section 3.05.  REGULAR MEETINGS.  Regular meetings of the Board of Trustees shall be held without call at such time as shall from time to time be fixed by the Board of Trustees.  Such regular meetings may be held without notice.
Section 3.06.  SPECIAL MEETINGS.  Special meetings of the Board of Trustees for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by any two (2) Trustees or the President or any Vice President or the Secretary on one day’s notice to each trustee. The notice need not specify the purpose of the meeting or the place if the meeting is to be held at the principal executive office of the Trust.
5


Section 3.07.  QUORUM.  A majority of the current trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, except to adjourn as provided in Section 10 of this Article III.  Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the trustees present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present shall be regarded as the act of the Board of Trustees, subject to the provisions of the Declaration of Trust.  A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of trustees if any action taken is approved by a least a majority of the required quorum for that meeting.
Section 3.08.  WAIVER OF NOTICE.  Notice of any meeting need not be given to any trustee who either before or after the meeting signs a written waiver of notice, a consent to holding the meeting, or an approval of the minutes.  The waiver of notice or consent need not specify the purpose of the meeting.  All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the records of the Trust or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.  Notice of a meeting shall also be deemed given to any trustee who attends the meeting without protesting before or at its commencement the lack of notice to that trustee.
Section 3.09.  ADJOURNMENT.  A majority of the Trustees present, whether or not constituting a quorum, may adjourn any meeting to another time and place.
Section 3.10.  NOTICE OF ADJOURNMENT.  Notice of the time and place of holding an adjourned meeting need not be given unless the meeting is adjourned for more than forty-eight (48) hours, in which case notice of the time and place shall be given before the time of the adjourned meeting in the manner specified in Section 7 of this Article III to the trustees who were present at the time of the adjournment.
Section 3.11.  ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING.  Any action required or permitted to be taken by the Board of Trustees may be taken without a meeting if a majority of the members of the Board of Trustees shall individually or collectively consent in writing to that action.  Such action by written consent shall have the same force and effect as a majority vote of the Board of Trustees.  Such written consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board of Trustees.
Section 3.12.  FEES AND COMPENSATION OF TRUSTEES.  Trustees and members of committees may receive such compensation, if any, for their services and such reimbursement of expenses as may be fixed or determined by resolution of the Board of Trustees.  This Section 12 shall not be construed to preclude any trustee from serving the Trust in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation for those services.
Section 3.13.  DELEGATION OF POWER TO OTHER TRUSTEES.  Any Trustee may, by power of attorney, delegate his power for a period not exceeding six (6) months at any one time to any other Trustee or Trustees; provided that in no case shall fewer than two (2) Trustees personally exercise the powers granted to the Trustees under this Declaration of Trust except as otherwise expressly provided herein or by resolution of the Board of Trustees.
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ARTICLE IV.

COMMITTEES
Section 4.01.  COMMITTEES OF TRUSTEES.  The Board of Trustees may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the authorized number of trustees, designate one or more committees, each consisting of two (2) or more trustees, to serve at the pleasure of the Board.  The Board may designate one or more trustees as alternate members of any committee who may replace any absent member at any meeting of the committee.  Any committee to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board, shall have the authority of the Board, except with respect to:
(a) the approval of any action which under applicable law also requires shareholders’ approval or approval of the outstanding shares, or requires approval by a majority of the entire Board or certain members of said Board;
(b) the filling of vacancies on the Board of Trustees or in any committee;
(c) the fixing of compensation of the trustees for serving on the Board of Trustees or on any committee;
(d) the amendment or repeal of the Agreement and Declaration of Trust or of the By-Laws or the adoption of new By-Laws;
(e) the amendment or repeal of any resolution of the Board of Trustees which by its express terms is not so amendable or repealable;
(f) a distribution to the shareholders of the Trust, except at a rate or in a periodic amount or within a designated range determined by the Board of Trustees; or
(g) the appointment of any other committees of the Board of Trustees or the members of these committees.
Section 4.02.  MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES.  Meetings and action of committees shall be governed by and held and taken in accordance with the provisions of Article III of these By-Laws, with such changes in the context thereof as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board of Trustees and its members, except that the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board of Trustees or by resolution of the committee.  Special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board of Trustees, and notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee.  The Board of Trustees may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these By-Laws.
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ARTICLE V.

OFFICERS
Section 5.01.  OFFICERS.  The officers of the Trust shall be a President, a Secretary, a Chief Compliance Officer, a Treasurer, a Principal Executive Officer and a Principal Accounting Officer.  The Trust may also have, at the discretion of the Board of Trustees, a Chairman of the Board, one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Secretaries, one or more Assistant Treasurers, and such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3 of this Article V.  Any number of offices may be held by the same person.
Section 5.02.  ELECTION OF OFFICERS.  The officers of the Trust, except such officers as may appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 3 or Section 5 of this Article V, shall be chosen by the Board of Trustees, and each shall serve at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.
Section 5.03.  SUBORDINATE OFFICERS.  The Board of Trustees may appoint and may empower the president to appoint such other officers as the business of the Trust may require, each of whom shall hold office for such period, have such authority and perform such duties as are provided in these By-Laws or as the Board of Trustees may from time to time determine.
Section 5.04.  REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS.  Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board of Trustees at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Trustees or except in the case of an officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the Board of Trustees.
Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Trust.  Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice; and unless otherwise specified in that notice, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.  Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Trust under any contract to which the officer is a party.
Section 5.05.  VACANCIES IN OFFICES.  A vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal, disqualification or other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed in these By-Laws for regular appointment to that office.
Section 5.06.  CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD.  The Chairman of the Board, if such an officer is elected, shall if present preside at meetings of the Board of Trustees and exercise and perform such other powers and duties as may be from time to time assigned to him by the Board of Trustees or prescribed by the By-Laws.
Section 5.07.  PRESIDENT.  Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board of Trustees to the Chairman of the Board, if there be such an officer, the President shall be the chief executive officer of the Trust and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Trustees, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and the officers of the Trust.  He shall preside at all meetings of the shareholders and in the absence of the chairman of the board or if there be none, at all meetings of the Board of Trustees.  He shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of president of a corporation and shall have such other powers and duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees or these By-Laws.
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Section 5.08.  VICE PRESIDENTS.  In the absence or disability of the president, the vice presidents, if any, in order of their rank as fixed by the Board of Trustees or if not ranked, a vice president designated by the Board of Trustees, shall perform all the duties of the president and when so acting shall have all powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the president.  The vice presidents shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by the Board of Trustees or by these By-Laws and the President or the Chairman of the Board.
Section 5.09.  SECRETARY.  The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept at the principal executive office of the Trust or such other place as the Board of Trustees may direct a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of trustees, committees of trustees and shareholders with the time and place of holding, whether regular or special, and if special, how authorized, the notice given, the names of those present at trustees’ meetings or committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at shareholders’ meetings, and the proceedings.
The Secretary shall keep or cause to be kept at the principal executive office of the Trust or at the office of the Trust’s transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the Board of Trustees, a share register or a duplicate share register showing the names of all shareholders and their addresses, and the number and classes of shares held by each.
The Secretary shall give or cause to be given notice of all meetings of the shareholders and of the Board of Trustees required by these By-Laws or by applicable law to be given and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees or by these By-Laws.
Section 5.10.  TREASURER.  The Treasurer shall be the chief financial officer of the Trust and shall keep and maintain or cause to be kept and maintained adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the properties and business transactions of the Trust, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings and shares.  The books of account shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any Trustee.
The Treasurer shall deposit all monies and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the Trust with such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Trustees.  He shall disburse the funds of the Trust as may be ordered by the Board of Trustees, shall render to the President and Trustees, whenever they request it, an account of all of his transactions as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of the Trust and shall have other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees or these By-Laws.
Section 5.11.  PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICER.  The Principal Executive Officer shall have such authority and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees, and consistent with, applicable laws and regulations.
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Section 5.12.  PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING OFFICER.  The Principal Accounting Officer shall have such authority and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Trustees, and consistent with, applicable laws and regulations.
Section 5.13.  CHIEF COMPLIANCE OFFICER.  The Chief Compliance Officer of the Trust will be responsible for administering its compliance policies and procedures, shall have sufficient authority and independence within the organization to compel others to adhere to the compliance policies and procedures, shall report directly to the Board of Trustees, shall annually furnish a written report on the operation of the compliance policies and procedures to the Board of Trustees and shall perform such other duties as prescribed by the Board of Trustees.
ARTICLE VI.

INDEMNIFICATION OF TRUSTEES, OFFICERS,
EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS
Section 6.01.  AGENTS, PROCEEDINGS AND EXPENSES.  For the purpose of this Article , “agent” means any person who is or was a trustee, officer, employee or other agent of this Trust or is or was serving at the request of this Trust as a trustee, director, officer, employee or agent of another foreign or domestic corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise or was a trustee, director, officer, employee or agent of a foreign or domestic corporation which was a predecessor of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor entity; “proceeding” means any threatened, pending or completed action or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative; and “expenses” includes without limitation attorney’s fees and any expenses of establishing a right to indemnification under this Article.
Section 6.02.  ACTIONS OTHER THAN BY TRUST.  This Trust shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any proceeding (other than an action by or in the right of this Trust) by reason of the fact that such person is or was an agent of this Trust, against expenses, judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such proceeding if that person acted in good faith and in a manner that person reasonably believed to be in the best interests of this Trust and in the case of a criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the conduct of that person was unlawful.  The termination of any proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction or upon a plea of nolo contenders or its equivalent shall not of itself create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which the person reasonably believed to be in the best interests of this Trust or that the person had reasonable cause to believe that the person’s conduct was unlawful.
Section 6.03.  ACTIONS BY OR IN THE RIGHT OF TRUST.  This Trust shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action by or in the right of this Trust to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person is or was an agent of this Trust, against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by that person in connection with the defense or settlement of that action if that person acted in good faith, in a manner that person believed to be in the best interests of this Trust and with such care, including reasonable inquiry, as an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances.
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Section 6.04.  EXCLUSION OF INDEMNIFICATION.  Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary contained herein, there shall be no right to indemnification for any liability arising by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or the reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the agent’s office with this Trust.
No indemnification shall be made under Sections 2 or 3 of this Article:
(a) In respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which that person shall have been adjudged to be liable in the performance of that person’s duty to this Trust, unless and only to the extent that the court in which that action was brought shall determine upon application that in view of all the circumstances of the case, that person was not liable by reason of the disabling conduct set forth in the preceding paragraph and is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for the expenses which the court shall determine; or
(b) In respect of any claim, issue, or matter as to which that person shall have been adjudged to be liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received by him, whether or not the benefit resulted from an action taken in the person’s official capacity; or
(c) Of amounts paid in settling or otherwise disposing of a threatened or pending action, with or without court approval, or of expenses incurred in defending a threatened or pending action which is settled or otherwise disposed of without court approval, unless the required approval set forth in Section 6 of this Article is obtained.
Section 6.05.  SUCCESSFUL DEFENSE BY AGENT.  To the extent that an agent of this Trust has been successful on the merits in defense of any proceeding referred to in Sections 2 or 3 of this Article or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, before the court or other body before whom the proceeding was brought, the agent shall be indemnified against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by the agent in connection therewith, provided that the Board of Trustees, including a majority who are disinterested, non-party Trustees, also determines that based upon a review of the facts, the agent was not liable by reason of the disabling conduct referred to in of this Article .
Section 6.06.  REQUIRED APPROVAL.  Except as provided in Section 5 of this Article, any indemnification under this Article shall be made by this Trust only if authorized in the specific case on a determination that indemnification of the agent is proper in the circumstances because the agent has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Sections 2 or 3 of this Article and is not prohibited from indemnification because of the disabling conduct set forth in Section 4 of this Article , by:
(a) A majority vote of a quorum consisting of trustees who are not parties to the proceeding and are not interested persons of the Trust (as defined in the 1940 Act); or
(b) A written opinion by an independent legal counsel.
Section 6.07.  ADVANCE OF EXPENSES.  Expenses incurred in defending any proceeding may be advanced by this Trust before the final disposition of the proceeding on receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the agent to repay the amount of the advance unless it shall be determined ultimately that the agent is entitled to be indemnified as authorized in this Article , provided the agent provides a security for his undertaking, or a majority of a quorum of the disinterested, non-party trustees, or an independent legal counsel in a written opinion, determine that based on a review of readily available facts, there is reason to believe that said agent ultimately will be found entitled to indemnification.
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Section 6.08.  OTHER CONTRACTUAL RIGHTS.  Nothing contained in this Article shall affect any right to indemnification to which persons other than trustees and officers of this Trust or any subsidiary hereof may be entitled by contract or otherwise.
Section 6.09.  LIMITATIONS.  No indemnification or advance shall be made under this Article, except as provided in Sections 5 or 6 in any circumstances where it appears:
(a) That it would be inconsistent with a provision of the Agreement and Declaration of Trust, a resolution of the shareholders, or an agreement in effect at the time of accrual of the alleged cause of action asserted in the proceeding in which the expenses were incurred or other amounts were paid which prohibits or otherwise limits indemnification; or
(b) That it would be inconsistent with any condition expressly imposed by a court in approving a settlement.
Section 6.10.  INSURANCE.  Upon and in the event of a determination by the Board of Trustees of this Trust to purchase such insurance, this Trust shall purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any agent of this Trust against any liability asserted against or incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out of the agent’s status as such, but only to the extent that this Trust would have the power to indemnify the agent against that liability under the provisions of this Article.
Section 6.11.  FIDUCIARIES OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLAN.  This Article does not apply to any proceeding against any trustee, investment manager or other fiduciary of an employee benefit plan in that person’s capacity as such, even though that person may also be an agent of this Trust as defined in Section 1 of this Article.  Nothing contained in this Article shall limit any right to indemnification to which such a trustee, investment manager, or other fiduciary may be entitled by contract or otherwise which shall be enforceable to the extent permitted by applicable law other than this Article.
ARTICLE VII.

RECORDS AND REPORTS
Section 7.01.  MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF SHARE REGISTER.  This Trust shall keep at its principal executive office or at the office of its transfer agent or registrar, if either be appointed and as determined by resolution of the Board of Trustees, a record of its shareholders, giving the names and addresses of all shareholders and the number and series of shares held by each shareholder.
Section 7.02.  MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF BY-LAWS.  The Trust shall keep at its principal executive office the original or a copy of these By-Laws as amended to date, which shall be open to inspection by the shareholders at all reasonable times during office hours.
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Section 7.03.  MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF OTHER RECORDS.  The accounting books and records and minutes of proceedings of the shareholders and the Board of Trustees and any committee or committees of the Board of Trustees shall be kept at such place or places designated by the Board of Trustees or in the absence of such designation, at the principal executive office of the Trust.  The minutes shall be kept in written form and the accounting books and records shall be kept either in written form or in any other form capable of being converted into written form.  The minutes and accounting books and records shall be open to inspection upon the written demand of any shareholder or holder of a voting trust certificate at any reasonable time during usual business hours for a purpose reasonably related to the holder’s interests as a shareholder or as the holder of a voting trust certificate.  The inspection may be made in person or by an agent or attorney and shall include the right to copy and make extracts.
Section 7.04.  INSPECTION BY TRUSTEES.  Every trustee shall have the absolute right at any reasonable time to inspect all books, records, and documents of every kind and the physical properties of the Trust.  This inspection by a trustee may be made in person or by an agent or attorney and the right of inspection includes the right to copy and make extracts of documents.
Section 7.05.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.  A copy of any financial statements and any income statement of the Trust for each quarterly period of each fiscal year and accompanying balance sheet of the Trust as of the end of each such period that has been prepared by the Trust shall be kept on file in the principal executive office of the Trust for at least twelve (12) months and each such statement shall be exhibited at all reasonable times to any shareholder demanding an examination of any such statement or a copy shall be mailed to any such shareholder.
The quarterly income statements and balance sheets referred to in this section shall be accompanied by the report, if any, of any independent accountants engaged by the Trust or the certificate of an authorized officer of the Trust that the financial statements were prepared without audit from the books and records of the Trust.
ARTICLE VIII.